β-lactamase enzymes inactivate β-lactam antibiotics, by hydrolyzing their β-lactam ring essential to antibiotic
function [15, 16]. There is a wide array of βTrichostatin A -lactamases with varying specificities and activities, and this resistance Lazertinib mechanism has clinical significance [16–18]. Notably, many of the ‘ESKAPE’ pathogens (E nterococcus faecium, S taphylococcus aureus, K lebsiella pneumonia, A cinetobacter baumanni, P seudomonas aeruginosa and E nterobacter species), responsible for a majority of nosocomial infections , may produce β-lactamases. Alongside the ever-growing threat of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains are also highly prevalent and responsible for severe infections such
as infective endocarditis [20, 21]. Both MRSA and MSSA can produce β-lactamases [22–25]. Though MK-8776 mw by historical definition, expression of an altered target penicillin binding protein PBP2’ with lowered affinity for β-lactam antibiotics results in methicillin resistance [26–28], β-lactamase alone may be responsible for borderline methicillin/oxacillin resistance phenotype even in strains without PBP2’ . Most MRSA strains produce β-lactamase in addition to PBP2’ [22–24]. Among MSSA, ~90% strains are β-lactamase producers . β-lactamases can therefore present a challenge to successful anti-bacterial therapy, in particular where the bacterial burden is high. Cephalosporins are the treatment of choice for MSSA infections [31–33]. Although traditionally cephalosporins were believed to be stable to the S. aureus β-lactamases, an ‘inoculum effect’ has been demonstrated, wherein at high inocula some cephalosporins get hydrolysed by β-lactamases [34, 35]. The inoculum effect with different cephalosporins has been reported in
clinical isolates of MSSA [33, 36], and instances of clinical failure of cephalosporins are well documented in high-inoculum staphylococcal endocarditis infections and bacteremia [37–40]. The inoculum Avelestat (AZD9668) effect is not limited to Staphylococcus, and is observed in other bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with antibiotic classes other than cephalosporins as well . Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility and detection of resistance are mainly performed by means of disk diffusion assays or broth/agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits the bacterial growth), where bacteria are cultured in the presence of antimicrobials and respective growth patterns observed [41, 42]. Besides agar or broth dilution, the E-test is a relatively new, yet established method for MIC determination, and consists of a predefined gradient of antibiotic concentrations on a plastic strip (http://www.biomerieux-diagnostics.com).