Real time PCR experiments For real time PCR assays, UV C stress experiments are per formed as described in Moglia et al. selleck chemical Cabozantinib Total RNA was extracted as described above. The first strand cDNA was synthesised using Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries iScript cDNA Synthesis Kit, fol lowing manufacturers instructions. Primers were designed on HCT, and HQT Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sequences using the Primer 3 software. As a housekeeping gene, actin was chosen for its stability and level of expression, which is comparable to the genes of interest and whose expression remained stable after the UV C stress. The primers for its amplification were designed on the artichoke actin. All primers were purchased from Metabion. Standard curves were prepared for both the housekeeping ACT and target genes. The cDNAs were performed in trip licate for each sample in 20l.
Reaction mixes contained 2 iQ SYBR Green Supermix, specific primers at 300 nM, and 3l of cDNA. PCR reac tions were carried out in 48 well optical plates using the iCycler Real time PCR Detection System. Cycling Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries parameters were as follows one cycle at 95 C for 5 min for DNA polymerase activation, followed by 35 cycles of 5 sec at 95 C and 20 sec at 60 C. In all experi ments, appropriate negative controls containing no tem plate Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were subjected to the same procedure to exclude or detect any possible contamination. Melting curve analysis was performed at the end of amplification. Standard curves were analyzed with the iCycler iQ software. This quantification system was designed to automate analysis options, including quantitative and melting curve analy sis.
The results of amplification were analyzed by the com parative threshold cycle method, also known as the 2 ??Ct method. This method compares, for each time point considered, the Ct values of the samples of interest with the appropriate calibrator. The Ct values of both the calibrator and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the samples of interest are nor malized to the housekeeping gene. SNP detection and linkage analysis The allelic forms of globe artichoke HCT and HQT were analysed in the two globe artichoke genotypes, previously used for map devel opment. The full length HCT and HQT sequences were amplified on parental genome with 2 sets of primers and PCR products were sequenced for SNP identification. SNPs genotyping were carried out with the tetra primers ARMS PCR method by using two sets of outer and inner primers, designed using the software made available on line.
PCR products were separated by 2% agar ose gel electrophoresis. Segregation data of HCT and HQT SNP markers were monitored and analyzed together with those of AFLP, S SAP, M AFLP and SSR markers previously applied for globe artichoke maps construction. The goodness of fit between observed and definitely expected segregation data was assessed using the chi square test. Independent link age maps were constructed for each parent using the two way pseudo testcross mapping strategy by using Join Map 2. 0 software.