Based on this work, the alpha-1

Based on this work, the alpha-1 receptor antagonist, prazosin, and the alpha-2A agonist, guanfacine, are

now being tested and used to treat PTSD. The following reviews this emerging clinical research. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocker, prazosin, proved a logical Panobinostat molecular weight choice for human experimentation because of its clinical availability and it being the most lipid soluble of the alpha-1 antagonists, facilitating CNS penetration following oral administration. Prazosin trials in PTSD were initiated in both military and civilian cohorts in parallel, in part based on the research in animals described above. The military studies will be addressed first. Four combat-related PTSD prazosin efficacy studies have been completed and published, all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), all demonstrating significant and substantial efficacy of prazosin for reducing nighttime PTSD symptoms,

reducing daytime inhibitors hyperarousal symptoms and improving global clinical status. It is noteworthy that the hyperarousal scale includes many PFC-related symptoms (e.g. impaired concentration, impaired regulation of mood and aggression), in addition to alterations in sleep-wakefulness. The first three trials focused on prazosin Selleckchem Bosutinib for the treatment of nightmares and only administered prazosin at night; the fourth study including a morning dose to extend observations more meaningfully into daytime experience. The participants in the first two RCTs were Vietnam War combat veterans with decades of treatment resistant chronic PTSD. Prazosin was administered as a single evening dose specifically to target persistent and distressing trauma-related nightmares and sleep disruption as primary outcome measures. The Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) also was assessed to determine the impact of nightmare reduction Olopatadine and sleep improvement in global clinical status anchored to function at home and work. The first RCT was a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study performed in 10 veterans (Raskind et al., 2003). Prazosin or placebo in

random order were begun at an initial dose of 1 mg at bedtime and titrated upward for 3 weeks to a dose that eliminated trauma nightmares or to a maximum dose of 10 mg HS. The achieved maintenance dose was maintained for 6 weeks. Following a one-week washout period, participants were crossed over to the other treatment condition, again for 3 weeks titration and 6 weeks maintenance. At a mean achieved maintenance prazosin dose of 9.6 mg, prazosin was significantly and substantially superior to placebo for reducing nightmares (CAPS “recurrent distressing dreams of the event” item) and sleep disturbance (CAPS “sleep difficulty” item) and improving global clinical status. Change in total CAPS score and all three CAPS PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal) also significantly favored prazosin. The second RCT was a parallel group study on forty veterans randomized to prazosin or placebo (Raskind et al.

2c and a), in contrast to what was obtained with NaIO4


2c and a), in contrast to what was obtained with NaIO4

(Fig. 2b). OAg-oxTEMPO selleck chemical with an average percentage number of oxidized repeating units of 36% and 15% were conjugated to CRM197, to investigate the impact of the degree of OAg derivatization on the immunogenicity of the corresponding conjugates. The same conditions for the conjugation and purification of OAg-oxNaIO4 were applied and in both cases all CRM197 in the reaction mixtures was conjugated, with 19–28% of OAg conjugated (Fig. 3b). Libraries conjugates obtained using less derivatized OAg (both after treatment with NaIO4 or TEMPO) were characterized by a higher OAg to protein ratio with respect to the conjugate obtained from more oxidized OAg which was able to couple to more CRM197 molecules (Table 1). The terminal KDO residue of the core oligosaccharide was used for selective linking of OAg to CRM197 without modifying the OAg chain. To generate one conjugate vaccine, reductive amination RNA Synthesis inhibitor with ADH was followed by reaction with SIDEA and conjugation to CRM197[28]. A similar chemistry was evaluated where the first

step of reductive amination was conducted with NH4OAc, allowing the synthesis of a conjugate with a linker about half the length of ADH-SIDEA (Fig. 1b). After testing the reactivity of OAg-KDO with NH4OAc under different conditions (see SI), in order to synthesize the corresponding conjugate, the reaction was performed at pH 7.0 for 5 days resulting in the activation of 90% of OAg chains. Use of the longer ADH linker with the hydrazide functionality allowed Chlormezanone the reaction to proceed, with activation close to 100% after only 2 h at pH 4.5. In the following step where the OAg derivatives were reacted with SIDEA, >90% of total NH2

groups were coupled to SIDEA, for both OAg-NH2 and OAg-ADH. The analysis of the corresponding conjugation mixtures by HPLC-SEC, confirmed conjugate formation without residual free protein, while the amount of conjugated OAg was close to 15% in both cases. The resulting conjugates were very similar in terms of OAg to CRM197 ratio (4–5 OAg chains linked per protein) and molecular size, measured as distribution coefficient Kd by HPLC-SEC; even if OAg-NH2-SIDEA-CRM197 showed a slightly broader population (Table 1, Fig. 3c). Selective conjugates contained higher OAg to protein ratios than random conjugates (Table 1). The synthesized conjugates were tested in mice, with the following main objectives: to compare the immunogenicity of random versus selective conjugates; to analyze the impact of linker chain length on the immunogenicity of selective conjugates; to evaluate whether the degree of random modification of the OAg chain impacts on immunogenicity. After three doses, all the conjugates generated anti-OAg IgG levels that were not statistically different (Fig. 4a).

Surveillance and study of the epidemiology and evolution of these

Surveillance and study of the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses are key areas for future research. The transmission of LPAIV from wild or domestic birds to swine has resulted in multiple lineages of influenza viruses that have become established in

swine populations, and are endemic in various regions of the world [7]. The diversity of swine influenza virus subtypes and lineages appears on the rise for the past decades, and is associated with high rates of reassortments in this species. It is possible that this is a novel phenomenon likewise in part due to the massive increase in swine production worldwide [31]. Occasionally, some strains of LPAIV have caused only one or few epidemics or have been isolated from pigs only sporadically, likely resulting from sporadic introductions from bird reservoirs without further establishment. CDK inhibitor Shared use of habitat or of drinking water with wild or domestic birds, consumption of carcasses or slaughter offal of these birds, or introduction by humans via contaminated utensils or vehicles are most likely the sources

of LPAIV infection in swine. GSKJ4 The transmission of LPAIV from birds to other mammals has resulted in the establishment of equine and canine influenza virus lineages in horse and dog populations, respectively; in occasional influenza epidemics in farmed American mink (Mustela vison) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina); and in sporadic cases of infection in whales [7]. GBA3 Contacts with infected birds through shared use of habitats, shared feeding habits or consumption of infected birds likely Libraries favoured cross-species transmission of LPAIV in these species. Canine influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype currently circulating

in dog populations are exceptions as they originated from an equine influenza virus, presumably after consumption of infected horse meat by racing greyhounds [32] and [33]. More recently, LPAIV H3N2 have been transmitted from birds to domestic dogs and may have established in this species in South-East Asia [34] and [35]. Among HPAIV, only HPAIV H5N1 have been transmitted from poultry to a wide range of wild and domestic birds and mammals [12]. Consumption of infected bird carcasses presumably resulted in the frequent transmission of these viruses to carnivores and predatory birds [7]. Animal bridge species infected with influenza viruses may become sources of infection for humans. The major sources of human infection with zoonotic influenza viruses are poultry and swine (Table 1). So far, no transmission of equine or canine influenza viruses to humans has been reported. However, transmission of avian and human influenza viruses to domestic dogs and cats are increasingly reported [34], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40] and [41].

6 mm with 5 μ particle size, Phenomenax) using a mobile phase com

6 mm with 5 μ particle size, Phenomenax) using a mobile phase combination of 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) in an isocratic

mode elution with a flow rate of 1.2 mL min−1 at the column oven temperature of 35 °C. The detection was monitored at a wavelength of 262 nm. Fig. 1 shows a typical chromatogram of curcumin and piperine indicating complete resolution of curcumin at 8.685 min and piperine at 5.969 min. Six replicate injections containing curcumin (150 μg mL−1) and piperine (150 μg mL−1) and the results are summarized in Table 1. The developed method satisfies the acceptance criteria of the system suitability parameters and ensures the validity of the developed method. Three replicate injections containing click here known amount of curcumin and piperine at 50%, 100% and 150% were added to the pre-analysed samples (150 μg mL−1 of curcumin and 150 μg mL−1 of piperine) and analysed using the developed method. The results are summarized in Table 2. The developed method satisfies the acceptance criteria of the recovery study

and ensure accuracy of the developed method. Six replicate injections containing curcumin (150 μg mL−1) and piperine (150 μg mL−1) and the results Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase are summarized in Table 3. The % R.S.D of the assay, peak area and tailing were less than 1% which denoted very good repeatability of the measurement. Hence the developed method displayed a good precision. The LOD were 0.3 ppm for curcumin and 0.1 ppm for piperine at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Similarly, LOQ were 0.4 ppm for curcumin and 0.9 ppm for piperine at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1. Calibration standard solutions of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 150 μg mL−1 were prepared and analysed using the developed

method. Obtained peak areas were plotted Libraries against the concentration and the linearity was calculated by least square regression method. The results are summarized in Table 4. The robustness of the developed method was investigated with slight change in the column oven temperature (30 °C & 40 °C) and pH of the mobile phase (2.8–3.2) and the results are summarized in Table 5. However, these changes had an influence on the assay but not considered significant as the % R.S.D was ≤2%. The developed method was successfully implemented to determine the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin and piperine in the Eudragit E 100 nanoparticles. The results are summarized in Table 6. Both methods have shown lesser standard deviation and % R.S.D was less than 2% which ensures the precision of the developed method.

First trimester

First trimester INCB024360 datasheet inhibitors uterine artery Doppler, shows promise but needs further ‘real life’ evaluation [200]. Markers of preeclampsia risk that become available in the second and third trimesters include measures of: placental

perfusion, vascular resistance, and morphology (e.g., mean maternal second trimester BP, 24-h ABPM, Doppler); maternal cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance; fetoplacental unit endocrinology [e.g., pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in the first trimester, and alpha-fetoprotein, hCG, and inhibin-A in the early second trimester]; maternal renal function (e.g., serum uric acid or microalbuminuria); maternal endothelial function and endothelial–platelet interaction (e.g., platelet count, antiphospholipid antibodies, or homocysteine); oxidative stress (e.g., serum lipids); and circulating angiogenic factors [201], [202] and [203]. Systematic reviews of primary studies have evaluated clinically available Gefitinib mw biomarkers [163], [164] and [204] and no single clinical test reaches the ideal of ⩾90% sensitivity for preeclampsia prediction. Only uterine artery Doppler

at 20–24 weeks has sensitivity >60% for detection of preeclampsia, particularly when testing is performed: (i) in women at increased risk of preeclampsia; (ii) during the second trimester, and/or (iii) when predicting severe and early preeclampsia. Women with abnormal velocimetry could be considered for increased surveillance to detect preeclampsia or other adverse placental outcomes. Uterine artery Doppler should not be used in low risk women [162] and [205]. It is unclear whether markers used for Down syndrome screening are useful in isolation (or with uterine artery Doppler) for preeclampsia prediction

[206]. Thrombophilia screening is not recommended for investigation of prior preeclampsia or other placental complications, except if the woman satisfies the clinical Sitaxentan criteria for the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome [207] and [208]. As no single test predicts preeclampsia with sufficient accuracy to be clinically useful [209], interest has grown in researching multivariable models that include clinical and laboratory predictors available at booking and thereafter [166], [209] and [210]. Clinicians should support clinics conducting relevant prospective longitudinal studies. We have based our recommendations on both prevention of preeclampsia and/or its associated complications. Pregnant women have been classified as being at ‘low’ or ‘increased’ risk of preeclampsia, usually by the presence of one or more risk markers as shown in Table 5 [see Prediction].

Argentina, Brazil and Mexico purchased vaccine to cover, on avera

Argentina, Brazil and Mexico purchased vaccine to cover, on average, 44% of their populations. Countries that procured vaccine exclusively from the RF covered approximately 5% of their total population. Recipient countries of WHO donated vaccine were able to cover approximately 13% of their respective populations (Fig. 1). LAC countries established specific find more vaccination goals for high risk groups, targeting approximately 147 million people. As of December 2010, an estimated 145 million doses had

been administered in LAC, representing approximately a 99% completion of the pre-established goal. Despite this high regional coverage, large variations by country in vaccination coverage of high risk groups existed (Table 1). Reported coverage of pre-established learn more target populations in LAC ranged from 1% to greater

than 100%. Fourteen countries and one territory (Montserrat) achieved target population coverage of ≥70%. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico reached ≥95% of their target populations. Not all countries reported disaggregated vaccine coverage data of individual prioritized risk groups. The highest coverage reported was for targeted individuals with chronic medical conditions, at an average of 110%, followed by health personnel and essential services, averaging 100% coverage. The lowest vaccination coverage was reported for pregnant women, averaging 67% of the pre-established goal. For other risk groups, 17 countries reported coverage ranging from 5% to greater than 100% (Table 1). Many LAC countries encountered difficulties vaccinating pregnant women, despite their high risk of influenza (H1N1) morbidity and mortality, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, and in the first two weeks post partum [8] and [29]. Most LAC countries have developed ESAVI surveillance systems as part of their monitoring of regular vaccination activities. With pandemic influenza vaccination, special focus was given to clinical events such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and anaphylaxis [25]; updated alerts on vaccine safety were also sent periodically to countries to increase awareness of other possible ESAVI [30] and [31].

As of December 2010, the types of ESAVI following pandemic (H1N1) vaccination in LAC were similar to what would be expected with the seasonal influenza vaccine [10] and no deaths Farnesyltransferase were identified as being causally related to the vaccine. The data presented are still preliminary, as countries’ are finalizing the classification of cases. A total of 13,621 ESAVI cases were reported to PAHO, 846 (6.2%) of them were classified by countries as severe (rate of 5.9 severe ESAVI per million doses administered). Of these, 389 cases were classified by countries as being related to vaccination itself (rate of 2.7 ESAVI per million doses administered) and 60 ESAVI were defined as programmatic Libraries errors (errors in vaccine storage, preparation, handling or administration) [32].

Previous work indicates

that stimulation of the alveus ev

Previous work indicates

that stimulation of the alveus evokes at least two forms of recurrent inhibition, with a single stimulus recruiting primarily somatic and proximal dendritic inhibition, whereas brief trains (as used in the study by Müller and colleagues) also recruit a distal dendritic form of inhibition mediated by stratum oriens and lacunosum-moleculare (OL-M) cells ( Pouille and Scanziani, 2004). The somatic and proximal dendritic inhibition evoked by alveus stimulation is likely to be mediated by a variety of interneuron subtypes, including axo-axonic Selleckchem Apoptosis Compound Library cells, which target the axon initial segment, basket cells, which are primarily somatic, and bistratified cells, which target oblique and basal dendrites ( Somogyi and Klausberger, 2005). To generate dendritic spikes, the authors use local glutamate iontophoresis targeted to oblique and basal dendritic branches. Consistent with earlier work using glutamate uncaging (Losonczy et al., 2008), they find that glutamate iontophoresis generates localized dendritic spikes in a subset of basal and apical oblique branches of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. These

local dendritic spikes can be detected at the soma as an abrupt change in the rate of rise of the somatic membrane potential, and they had similar properties to events generated by glutamate uncaging or local synaptic stimulation. Presumably the authors chose to use glutamate iontophoresis rather than uncaging in these experiments because of the capacity of caged glutamate to block GABA receptors (Fino et al., 2009). As observed previously (Losonczy et al., 2008), the authors find that these dendritic spikes come in two classes, weak and strong, with strong MYO10 dendritic spikes more effective in generating action potential output. The main new finding from the study (Müller et al., 2012) is that while recurrent inhibition is effective in blocking the

generation of weak dendritic spikes, it is ineffective in blocking the generation of strong dendritic spikes. The authors go on to show that this is also the case after conversion of weak dendritic spikes to strong dendritic spikes following the pairing of dendritic spikes with bursts of somatic action potentials. Finally, the authors investigate the impact of recurrent inhibition during theta-burst stimulation, used to mimic the natural theta rhythm, showing that an activity-dependent reduction in inhibition during theta-burst stimulation reduces the capacity of inhibition to block the generation of dendritic spikes. The data show that recurrent inhibition is relatively ineffective in blocking the generation of strong dendritic spikes, which begs the question: What is it about these events that makes them so powerful? Previous work indicates an important role of dendritic A-type potassium channels in regulating the strength of localized dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (Losonczy et al., 2008).

Odors were applied for 4 s/trial with 1–2 min of intertrial

Odors were applied for 4 s/trial with 1–2 min of intertrial click here intervals. We thank S. Kalina, L. Xiao, I. Hsieh, and S. Moghadam for technical assistance, A. Peters and A. Mitani for help with data analysis, J. Moore for help with the sniff monitoring apparatus, Y. Yoshihara for the Tbx21 antibody, L.L. Looger, J. Akerboom, D.S. Kim, and the GECI Project at Janelia Farm Research Campus for making GCaMP available, and W. Kristan, R. Malinow, M. Scanziani, and members of the Komiyama laboratory for comments on the manuscript. This work was supported

by grants from Japan Science and Technology Agency (PRESTO), NIH (P30, NS069301-01), Pew Charitable Trusts, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, David & Lucile Packard Foundation, and New York Stem Cell Foundation to T.K., from NIH (R01, DC04682) to J.S.I., from Selleck Trametinib NIH (R21, DC012641-01) to T.K. and J.S.I., and by NIH Training Grant (5T32GM007240) to M.W.C. T.K. is a NYSCF-Robertson Investigator. “
“The predominant view of medial temporal lobe function emphasizes that spatial and nonspatial information reach the hippocampus through segregated parahippocampal pathways (e.g., Eichenbaum et al., 2007; Knierim et al., 2006). Spatial and contextual information is conveyed to the

hippocampus by the postrhinal (POR) cortex (parahippocampal cortex [PHC] in the primate brain) and the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), whereas nonspatial information is conveyed by the perirhinal cortex (PER) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). These two pathways, however, are not completely segregated. For example, intrinsic entorhinal connections span the LEC and MEC in both rats and monkeys (Chrobak and Amaral, 2007; Dolorfo and Amaral, 1998). In addition, in both species, the PER located in the nonspatial pathway is reciprocally connected with the POR/PHC in the spatial pathway (Burwell and Amaral, 1998b; Suzuki and Amaral, 1994b). Given the anatomical evidence for nonspatial Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II input to the spatial

pathway, it is not surprising that the PHC is implicated in a variety of higher-order cognitive functions, some of which are not strictly limited to the spatial domain. These functions include visual scene processing (Epstein et al., 1999), processing of objects in large spaces (Maguire et al., 1998), binding of objects and contexts (Hayes et al., 2007), retrieval of spatial context (Burgess et al., 2001), object location processing (Bohbot et al., 1998), and episodic memory (e.g., Gabrieli et al., 1997; Ranganath et al., 2004). Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that activity in the PHC increases when individuals are presented with objects that have strong contextual associations (Aminoff et al., 2007; Bar and Aminoff, 2003; Bar et al., 2008).

In the computer network shown in Figure 1A, degree is an accurate

In the computer network shown in Figure 1A, degree is an accurate means of identifying hubs. In correlation networks, however, degree is a problematic means of identifying hubs. We argue this point using conceptual networks and real RSFC data. Two comments preface

the data. First, the conceptual correlation networks in Figure 1 are presented to illustrate how the meaning of degree can change in various situations; they are not intended to be full-fledged models of RSFC signal. Second, our argument is intended to apply Tanespimycin chemical structure to networks formed using Pearson correlations; our argument may be less relevant to other types of correlation networks. We return to this topic in the Discussion. Our argument is first demonstrated using networks of perfect correlations and then relaxed into a form that is more relevant to the imperfect correlations found in RSFC networks. Suppose there is a system composed of groups of nodes with perfectly covarying timecourses. An example is shown in Figure 1B, where a system of songbirds segregates into three flocks, each singing a different song. In this example, each flock sings a song with no similarity to the song of the other flock. Such a system is called a “block model” (see the matrix), and nodes within the blocks (here, flocks) check details are structurally equivalent, meaning they have identical sets of connections and are therefore interchangeable (Newman, almost 2010). All nodes within

a block have identical degree, and this degree is directly related to the size of the block. Thus, degree will identify hubs in the largest blocks of the graph. If blocks correlate to any extent, then degree will depend not only on the size of a node’s block but also on the sizes of related blocks (Figure 1C). If one relaxes “perfectly correlated” to “more correlated than average,” blocks become groups of nodes called communities, and degree will tend to identify hubs

in the largest communities of a correlation network (Figure 1D). Degree thus has different meanings in different types of network. In many graphs, such as the computers of Figure 1A, high degree means that an individual node has many connections and is probably important. In others, such as the block model in Figure 1B, high degree means nothing more than that a node is part of a large block. In networks like RSFC networks, which are noisy and in which nodes may display individual temporal dynamics (Chang and Glover, 2010), degree is probably somewhat driven by unique properties of individual nodes as in Figure 1A, but also somewhat driven by community size as in Figure 1B. The meaning of degree is thus ambiguous in RSFC networks. This ambiguity has critical implications for studies that have identified hubs in RSFC on the basis of degree, since such hubs may be identified due to community size rather than important roles in information processing.

5°C Embryos with sparse labeling of radial glia progenitors were

5°C. Embryos with sparse labeling of radial glia progenitors were imaged on the temperature-controlled (28.5°C) stage of a confocal microscope (Nikon C1 spectral confocal microscope with up-right objectives). One group was imaged every 8 hr for 48 hr to examine cell fate and lineage. The second group was imaged PLX4032 concentration for 26–32 hr with a fixed 12 min

interval. For the second group the parameters of confocal imaging were determined to be sufficient to capture the INM for each cell, while reducing photobleaching during the extended imaging period. Data from both groups contributed to Figures 1C and 1D, whereas only data from the second group contributed to Figure 2. For the analysis of Mib-GFP segregation in paired daughter cells, electroporated embryos are embedded and imaged using the same method as described above except the interval of time lapse is 6 min. For the analysis of Notch activity in paired daughter cells using her4.1:dRFP transgenic fish, we electroporated

the GFP reporter plasmid into the hindbrain region to label individual radial glia progenitors because this transgenic line is reported to better recapitulate Notch activity in the hindbrain than in the forebrain ( Yeo et al., 2007). Electroporated Fasudil research buy embryos are embedded and imaged using the same method as described above except that the interval of time lapse is 10 min. Blastomere transplantation was performed as previously described in Ho and Kane (1990). The Hu:GFP+ donor embryos were injected at the one-cell stage with the morpholino over antisense oligonucleotides against dla (or par-3) and the H2BmRFP sense RNA serving as a lineage tracer. At 3–4 hpf stage (1-k cell to sphere), 10–20 donor cells were transplanted to the animal-pole region of similarly staged wild-type hosts. Morpholino and mRNA injections were performed at the one-cell stage. The following gene-specific morpholinos were used in this study: dla MO (5′-CTTCTCTTTTCGCCGACTGATTCAT-3′) ( Latimer et al., 2002), par-3 MO (5′-TCAAAGGCTCCCGTGCTCTGGTGTC-3′)

( Echeverri and Oates, 2007). Approximately 1 pmol of dla morpholino or 0.35 pmol of par3 MO was injected at the one-cell stage per embryo. H2BmRFP 5′-capped sense mRNA was synthesized by SP6 transcription from NotI-linearized plasmid by using the mMESSAGE mMACHINE kit (Ambion). Approximately 4 nl mRNA at 100 ng/ml was injected per embryo. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed on whole-mount embryos as described in Guo et al. (1999) and imaged with a Nikon C1 confocal. The following antibodies were used in immunohistochemistry: chicken anti-GFP (Abcam), rabbit anti-β-catenin (Invitrogen), mouse anti-Hu (Molecular Probes), mouse anti-Dlc and mouse anti-Dld (Leslie et al., 2007), and rabbit anti-aPKC (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Expression levels of her4.1, her15.1, dla, and dld were examined by FISH, followed by quantitative analysis using MetaMorph Imaging software (Universal Imaging, Philadelphia).