Several studies have shown that microspheres may have a dual role: They may be used to enhance the effect of sonothrombolysis and assist in targeted drug delivery. To date, transcranial US has mainly been developed for diagnostic purposes. Several experimental studies have been
conducted or are being undertaken to optimize US settings for sonothrombolysis. A need still exists to determine the optimal US frequency and energy so as to achieve the safest and most effective form of US for Galunisertib ic50 sonothrombolysis. “
“Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke  that can be administered fast and at any level emergency room equipped with a non-contrast CT scanner. Even though patients with severe strokes and proximal arterial occlusions are less likely to respond to tPA, they still do better than
Selleckchem ABT-737 placebo-treated patients . The presence of a proximal arterial occlusion should not be viewed as an insurmountable predictor of tPA failure since nutritious recanalization can occur even with large middle cerebral (MCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombi  and . Even if intra-arterial interventions are approved in the future for stroke treatment, it is unrealistic to expect that all patients with MCA occlusions either will reach comprehensive stroke centers in time or their risk factor profile would always make catheter intervention feasible. With bridging intravenous–intra-arterial protocols being tested, there is even further need to amplify the systemic part of reperfusion therapy so that more patients could benefit from early treatment initiation . Early clinical improvement after stroke usually occurs after arterial recanalization , ,  and . The so-called “recanalization hypothesis” links the occurrence of recanalization with increase of good functional outcome and reduction of death , however this hypothesis has not been confirmed in a prospective clinical trial, subject of an ongoing CLOTBUST-PRO multi-center study
. In the CLOTBUST trial , early recanalization coupled with early dramatic recovery much was more common among tPA treated patients who were exposed to continuous vs intermittent monitoring with pulsed wave 2 MHz TCD (25% vs 8%). This, in turn, produced a trend towards more patients recovering at 3 months to modified Ranking score 0–1 (42% vs 29%) . Diagnosis of an acute intracranial occlusion, re-canalization and re-occlusion in the CLOTBUST trial was based on the thrombolysis in brain ischemia (TIBI) residual flow grading system . It describes typical waveforms that identify residual flow around an arterial occlusion, and their detailed definitions were published elsewhere .
The concentration of zileuton used in the present study is able to completely block the synthesis of eicosanoids produced by the lipoxygenase pathway (Horizoe et al., 1998; Canetti et al., 2003). Previous observations on the reversal of the inhibitory action of venom and crotoxin by zileuton (Sampaio
et al., 2006; Nunes et al., 2010), as well as the prevention of the inhibitory effect of venom in edema by zileuton observed in the present study, strongly suggest the involvement of eicosanoids from the lipoxygenase pathway in modulating the inhibitory action of venom. We do not yet have unambiguous data on which component or components generated in the lipoxygenase pathway could be involved in the inhibitory effect of the venom. However, this set of results, in conjunction with data obtained from macrophage culture studies and models of acute inflammatory response
(Sampaio Thiazovivin datasheet et al., 2006; Nunes et al., 2010) suggest the involvement of lipoxins in this process. It is known that Cdt venom is able to induce the generation of lipoxins in cultured macrophages (Sampaio et al., 2006) and that the inhibitory activity of this venom on the acute inflammation induced by carrageenan depends on their action on formyl find more peptide receptors, which are related to lipoxins or resolvins (Nunes et al., 2010). Studies have shown that lipoxins may regulate the chronic and the acute inflammatory responses (Kantarci and van Dyke, 2003). Considering that lipoxins need to bind to G-protein coupled receptors, such as
formyl peptides receptors family, to exert their biological actions (Chiang and Serhan, 2006; Ye et al. 2009), the results obtained in the present study with animals pre-treated with Boc2, a specific inhibitor of formyl peptide receptors, reinforce a possible involvement of lipoxins in this inhibitory effect of the Cdt venom on this chronic inflammatory response. To identify which component in the Cdt venom is responsible for the toxin’s inhibitory effect on chronic edema induced by BCG, we found that crotoxin, the major component of the venom and the main toxin responsible for the observed effects in the pathophysiology of Crotalus Reverse transcriptase envenoming, was the only component that presented similar inhibitory results to those observed with crude venom. This result confirms previous studies showing that this toxin interferes with the biological and metabolic activities of macrophages and is responsible for the inhibition of acute inflammatory processes ( Sampaio et al., 2006; Nunes et al., 2010). In conclusion, our results show that C. durissus terrificus venom, and in particular crotoxin, significantly inhibits the chronic paw edema induced by the injection of BCG in mice and suggest that this inhibition may be due to the generation of anti-inflammatory mediator(s) from the lipoxygenase pathway, possibly by the generation of lipoxins.
1B). In addition, densitometric analysis of the SDS-PAGE was performed to estimate the purity of the mAb preparations. The purity grade for mAbs A85/9-4 (46%), 59/2-E4 (45%), and 6AD2-G5 (37%) is shown in Fig. 1C. The ability of purified mAbs to recognize ATM/ATR inhibitor the respective toxins by ELISA is shown in Fig. 2. The mAbs A85/9-4 and 59/2-E4, which recognize phospholipase A2 and Zn-metalloproteinase, respectively, were able to bind the antigen at the lowest concentration tested (10 ng/mL) at a relatively high optical density when compared to the control sample (Fig. 2A, B). However, mAb 6AD2-G5 was not as effective as the other two, as the final dilution that recognized the antigen was
8 μg/mL (Fig. 2C). In a previous study from our group, Petretski et al. (2000) showed that mAb 6AD2-G5 was very effective in neutralizing the catalytic activity of the thrombin-like enzyme and also it recognized a conformational epitope of the toxin. In fact, this could explain why mAb 6AD2-G5 weakly binds the target antigen adsorbed to the solid phase of the ELISA plate, as the adsorption of the antigen
to the plastic surface could result in slight changes in the antigen epitope structure. The neutralizing properties of the mAbs against their respective toxins are shown in Fig. 3. The ability of three different mAb 59/2-E4 concentrations to neutralize hemorrhage induced by 5 μg of venom is shown RO4929097 in Fig. 3A. Hemorrhage neutralization by the mAb 59/2-E4 was seen in a dose-dependent manner from 25 μg to 100 μg of antibody tested. Conversely, the ability of mAb 59/2-E4 to neutralize the enzyme’s catalytic activity was negligible (data not shown) when azocasein was used as substrate. This result indicates that mAb 59/2-E4 does not bind to the catalytic domain of B. atrox metalloproteinase.
The same pattern was observed for mAb MAJar 3 against jararhagin, a Bothrops jararaca PIII metalloproteinase ( Tanjoni et al., 2003). MAJar 3 efficiently neutralized the hemorrhagic activity of jararhagin without blocking the catalytic activity of the enzyme and was shown to bind to the C-terminal portion of the disintegrin domain, which could be in conformational proximity to the catalytic domain or functionally modulate Bay 11-7085 the hemorrhagic activity of the snake venom metalloproteinase. Because mAb 59/2-E4 neutralized the biological activity of hemorrhagin, which has properties similar to those of MAJar 3, it is possible that both mAbs recognize the same epitope. The myotoxic activity induced by PLA2 was inhibited when the enzyme was incubated with mAb A85/9-4 followed by injection into the gastrocnemius muscle of mice (Fig. 3B). The CK serum level was drastically reduced in mice treated with the specific mAb when compared to control mice, treated with the non-specific IgG.
Taxa endemic to some deep-sea ecosystems have patchy distributions and populations (or meta-populations) that may be connected and interdependent
among sites at spatial scales relevant to maintenance of populations and gene flow. There are thus spatial and temporal dynamics, often on relatively large scales, GSK458 datasheet that make it challenging to understand how well a particular restoration effort fits into a larger landscape. Similarly, there are external threats to the health and integrity of restored deep-sea ecosystems (e.g., global changes in ocean circulation resulting from a warming climate) that may be impossible to avoid or minimize through restoration efforts, because of the physico-chemical connectivity of deep-sea ecosystems resulting from ocean circulation. Because
these ecosystems may be inter-connected with other ecosystems , we may consistently underestimate the entire suite of extended benefits that results from restoration (or that is lost due to damage). Further, governance of deep-sea ecosystems is an emergent property at both national and international levels. These points should not preclude consideration of deep-sea restoration Tacrolimus cell line efforts, but they do highlight some of the challenges that restoration practitioners working in the deep sea will need to take into account. A key challenge to promoting ecological restoration is to clarify and prioritize restoration opportunities. The basic decision parameters that determine whether or not to restore fall into at least three broad categories of decision parameters: socio-economic, ecological, and technological, within which there are multiple subcategories
(Table 1). Socio-economic factors reflect aspects of restoration that are likely to benefit people, impose costs on them, or are otherwise influenced by societal factors. Ecological factors reflect the ecological contribution of the proposed restoration activities. Technical factors deal with the real world difficulties of conducting restoration and the ultimate likelihood that Beta adrenergic receptor kinase restoration efforts will be successful. Specific factors and considerations that influence the decision to restore or not to restore ultimately lie with the stakeholders involved. The authors of this paper—whose expertise spans deep-sea ecology, ecological restoration and restoration practice, economics, ocean governance and policy, environmental management related to seafloor mineral extraction, and human ecology—convened in Sète France (November 2012) and considered how the decision parameters in Table 1 would apply to three specific case studies. As a comparison for deep-sea restoration, we chose one non-deep-sea case study, namely on-going restoration of 160 ha of saltmarsh in San Francisco South Bay that had been lost through coastal development. We also selected two different deep-sea habitats as hypothetical cases for restoration.
Both therapies increased bone mass and strength but some significant differences in the phenotypes were observed. While PTH increased both trabecular Ganetespib and cortical bone thicknesses in the femur, ActRIIB-Fc dramatically increased femoral trabecular bone but had no effect on cortical bone thickness. This combination of increased trabecular and cortical bone in the femur of PTH treated mice resulted
in enhanced torsional strength and stiffness that was not observed in femurs from ActRIIB-Fc treated animals. In contrast, PTH treatment did not significantly increase vertebral bone volume or strength while ActRIIB-Fc increased vertebral trabecular bone volume and enhanced vertebral compression strength. It is tempting to speculate that PTH treatment enhanced periosteal bone formation while ActRIIB-Fc did not. Certainly, dynamic histomorphometry analyses suggest that ActRIIB-Fc and PTH increase trabecular bone formation. Biochemical analyses of
serum from PTH treated mice detected increases in sCa, P1NP and osteocalcin which support the evidence that PTH stimulates bone formation. Other than a mild but significant increase in sCa, ActRIIB-Fc treated mice did not display typical changes in either P1NP or osteocalcin which one might expect given the dramatic increase in trabecular bone formation. It is possible that we missed detecting changes Dichloromethane dehalogenase GSK1120212 in these anabolic markers by only analyzing serum at the end of the study. Alternatively, it is possible that ActRIIB-Fc and PTH enhance bone formation via different mechanisms. Other groups reported that ActRIIB-Fc treatment increased P1NP in aged mice . In addition, treatment of postmenopausal women with ActRIIB-Fc (ACE-031) demonstrated changes in serum bone turnover markers such as BALP . In both studies, it may be easier to detect changes in these serum markers since osteoblast activity is known to diminish
with age in both rodents and humans. It remains unclear why changes in P1NP and osteocalcin were not observed in our study. Additionally, the effect of ActRIIB-Fc on sCa is puzzling. Multiple mechanisms associated with hypercalcemia have been described including elevated PTH, abnormal FGF23 levels, Paget’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune responses and cancer. Further studies will be necessary to understand whether ActRIIB-Fc influences sCa directly or if this is through an indirect mechanism. The dynamic histomorphometry data from this work supports that administration of ActRIIB-Fc for 4 weeks is anabolic to bone. Effects on bone resorption, as measured by serum CTx levels, do not appear to be a major contributor to the measured bone parameters. Similarly, short term intermittent PTH administration, as performed in this study, did not alter CTx levels.
e., in aqueous medium at 37 °C. Uptake of DDV-Mas-7 by spinal cord neurons and release of dextran-Mas-7 from DDV-Mas-7 were determined by confocal
microscopy. Cells were exposed to DDV-Mas-7 (100 nM) in growth medium at 37 °C for 16 h, which was the optimum Selleckchem Belinostat time for the DDV uptake and separation (Zhang et al., 2009). Cells were subsequently washed and fixed overnight with 2% paraformaldehyde. The coverslips containing fixed cells were mounted between a glass slide and glass coverslip and fluorescent images were viewed on a Bio-Rad 2000 laser confocal microscope. For SNAP-25 immunoblotting, cells in each well were lysed in 1% SDS with 1 mM EDTA and 1 mM EGTA. The slurry was transferred to 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tubes, incubated in a 95 °C water bath for 5 min to inactivate proteases, and then stored at −80 °C. Immediately prior to use, samples
were thawed, mixed with equal volumes of Tris-Tricine sample buffer (Bio-Rad), heated at 95 °C for 4 min, and then separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Equal quantities of protein were loaded onto 4–12% acrylamide gels. Proteins were separated using 0.1 M Tris-Tricine, pH 8.3, and then transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membrane with a buffer containing 192 mM glycine, 25 mM Tris, pH 8.3, and 12% methanol. The membranes were soaked in 20 ml of 4% BSA in Tris-buffered saline-Tween 20 (TBST) buffer for 1 h at RT and next probed overnight with 2 ml of Goat anti-SNAP25 in the same buffer. After three 20-min washes with TBST, the membranes were exposed for 1 h to monkey Wilson disease protein anti-goat antibodies NVP-BGJ398 mw conjugated with horseradish peroxidase in 10 ml of blocking buffer. After washing three times with TBST, the membranes were developed with a chemiluminescent reagent (ECL). Same membrane was used for house-keeping protein analysis, i.e. after blotting with anti-SNAP25, the membranes were next used for anti-β-actin analysis. Scanned images of Western blots were produced and analyzed utilizing Bio-Rad quantity-one software. To determine whether Mas affects glycine exocytosis, 3[H]glycine release was measured in the same cell preparations of three-week
old mouse spinal cord neuronal cultures to examine a correlation between different mastoparans and 3[H]glycine exocytosis (Fig. 2). Stimulation with KCl (80 mM) released 3[H]glycine from untreated control cells, but the release was almost completely prevented (only 2% of untreated control) from BoNT/A (1 pM) poisoned cells. In these BoNT/A-treated cells, Mas (10 μM) or Mas-7 (10 μM) alone released about 30% and 50%, respectively, of the releasable pool of 3[H]glycine following 80 mM K+ stimulation. A combination of Mas plus 80 mM K+ increased 3[H]glycine release from BoNT/A treated cells about one and half-fold compared to that seen in untreated control cells (no BoNT/A); the release was even higher (two-fold over untreated control) with Mas-7 plus 80 mM K+.
Whereas the chimeric non-face object task used by Sarri et al. (2006) ‘explicitly’ tested for awareness of the contralesional space, requiring identification and naming of specific object halves, the chimeric face task of Mattingley et al.
(1994), as used by Sarri et al. (2006) and Ferber et al. (2003), is more ‘implicit’ in nature, possibly tapping into a lateral ‘preference’ or bias for one or other side of space, regardless of information content. In the chimeric face task (of judging which face looks happier, the upper or lower) there is in fact no objective correct response, since the two chimeric face tasks are perfect mirror images of each other (see Fig. 1B) and hence objectively contain the same amount of emotional expression. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ch5424802.html The present study was designed to explore potential reasons for the apparent discrepancy between the impact of prism adaptation on different measures for neglect, as observed in Sarri et al. (2006). First, we hypothesised that if the lack of a prism effect in the chimeric face expression judgement task is simply due to the special nature of face stimuli in general, Smad inhibitor then prism adaptation should likewise have no effect on neglect for other tasks involving chimeric face tasks. But the lack of a prism effect on the chimeric face expression task might also potentially reflect the ‘emotional’
nature of the task. If so, we would expect a different outcome in a task requiring non-emotional judgements for the same face stimuli, or in a ‘lateral preference task’ employing non-emotional, non-face stimuli. On the other hand, if the lack of prism benefit for the chimeric
face expression task is due to the nature of the task used (which can be considered a more ‘implicit’ or ‘indirect’ measure of spatial awareness, since there is no right or wrong answer), then Etofibrate we should find a similar outcome (i.e., no prism benefit) for other tasks of that nature in neglect, even if not using face stimuli. By the same token, we might find a positive impact of prism therapy for tasks employing chimeric face stimuli, but requiring more ‘explicit’ recognition for the left side of the chimeras, by analogy with the chimeric objects studied in Sarri et al. (2006). We thus examined the impact of the prism intervention on neglect performance in tasks employing both face and non-face stimuli, for tasks requiring ‘explicit’ or more ‘indirect’ measures of perceptual awareness, in ‘emotional’ or ‘non-emotional’ contexts. Here we assessed a new case-series of 11 neglect patients (see Fig. 2 for a summary of their lesions, and the Results section for a summary of clinical details). We first sought to assess any impact of the prism intervention on the chimeric expression lateral preference face task (as previously reported to be absent for 3 cases by Sarri et al., 2006, and for one case by Ferber et al., 2003).
Three replicates were performed. Embryos from each group were transferred individually to a cryotube, rapidly frozen in liquid N2 and learn more stored at −80 °C for further RNA extraction and PCR analysis. Total RNA was extracted from three pools of five blastocysts of both groups and quantification of Aqp3 and ATPase1 transcripts relative to β-actin gene was performed in duplicate by real time PCR for further comparison between groups. Expanded blastocysts co-cultured in CR2aa plus 10% (FCS) were vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS) method  in a solution with 20% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 20% ethylene glycol (EG).
After warming, embryos were co-cultured in CR2aa medium with granulosa cell monolayer for 72 h. The control group consisted of fresh embryos (non-vitrified). Post warming survival was assessed by their re-expansion and hatching at 72 h. Total of eight replicates were performed. Vitrified-warmed and fresh embryos were transferred individually to a cryotube, rapidly frozen in liquid N2 and stored at −80 °C for further
RNA extraction and PCR analysis. Total RNA was extracted from two pools of five re-expanded embryos at 72 h and relative quantification of Aqp3 and ATPase1 transcripts was performed in duplicate by real time PCR. Ovaries were obtained at a local slaughterhouse and shipped to laboratory in saline solution (0.9% NaCl with 0.1 g/L streptomycin) at 36.0 °C. Follicles were aspirated and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) with more than three compact layers of cumulus cells and oocyte with homogeneous cytoplasm were matured in tissue culture medium (TCM-199, Obeticholic Acid solubility dmso Gibco Life Technologies, Inc., Grand Island, NY, USA) supplemented with 20 μg/mL follicle stimulating hormone (FSH; Pluset, Serono, Italy), 0.36 mM sodium pyruvate, 10 mM sodium bicarbonate and 50 mg/mL streptomycin/penicillin in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 38.5 °C for
24 h. For in vitro fertilization, frozen/thawed semen was centrifuged at 9000g for 5 min in a Percoll discontinuous density gradient (45–90%) to obtain motile spermatozoa. The pellet was centrifuged again at 9000g for 3 min in Fert-TALP medium . In vitro fertilization was performed in 100-μL drops of Fert-TALP supplemented with 2 × 106 spermatozoa/mL, 20 μg/mL of heparin and Sitaxentan 6 mg/mL of fatty acid free BSA fraction V, covered with mineral oil, for 21 h in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 38.8 °C in air. Presumptive zygotes were partially denuded and co-cultured in CR2aa or SOFaac media with 10% FCS (Nutricell, Campinas, SP, Brazil) with their own cumulus cells under 5% CO2 and 39 °C in high humidity for 192 h post-insemination (hpi). Cleavage was assessed at 72 hpi and blastocyst at 168 (day 7) and 192 (day 8) hpi. Grade I (according to the IETS Manual  blastocysts and expanded blastocysts underwent osmotic challenge.
551) Epigenetic inhibitor library ( Table 3). As shown in many studies, total IgE values did not correlate with ImmunoCAP results ( Table 3) and were also
unable to discriminate between children who acquired tolerance and children who were still sensitive to milk up their last visit (p = 0.305 ANOVA). ImmunoCAP values for Cow’s milk, Casein, β-lactoglobulin (p = < 0.001) but not α-lactalbumin (p = 0.401) were able to make this discrimination. Furthermore, within the cohort that acquired milk tolerance during the time span of these visits, there was a small but direct correlation of ImmunoCAP values and age of tolerance i.e., higher casein or total cow's milk ImmunoCAP values in children that acquired milk tolerance at a later age ( Table 3). These results are in agreement with the larger specific average
IgE values shown by the susceptible group in the array data summary presented in Fig. 2. A cross-validated Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model was generated between the array data and the ImmunoCAP results and shown in Fig. 5. The best PLSR fit was achieved with Casein ImmunoCAP values (model fit R2 = 0.7; cross validation R2 = 0.6) but regression was less efficient for cow’s milk (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45 for model and cross validation respectively). Both models showed strongest predictive contributions from dairy proteins as expected and shown in Fig. 5B. PLS-DA models that directly predicted onset of tolerance based only on IgE array data did not result in accurate models, only predicting 2/3 of the tolerant cases correctly. Whether the rate of variation of the specific IgE content with successive visits had a better predictive selleck chemical power was investigated using the overall cumulative variation and the variation of each patient per year (Fig. 6). Overall the responses were very homogeneous
with some exceptions. One patient for instance has shown an increase in specific Amino acid IgE values with most of the groups tested. This contrasts with another patient showing an increase in the specific IgE response to dairy products only. Most of the remaining patients showed a diminishing dairy IgE response with time (Fig. 6). The slope of variation with time, variance and covariance of the measurements were not significantly predictive of any of the clinical parameters analyzed. Conversely, corroborating the data described earlier between ImmunoCAP Casein and the age of onset of milk tolerance (Table 3), the regression analysis of the specific IgE array data employing partial least square method (PLS) was also able to establish a relevant cross validated fit (R2 = 0.695) for this variable ( Fig. 7). These coefficients were obtained when the products were clustered in groups as variables. A higher cross-validation coefficient (R2 = 0.701) was obtained using the individual measurement values instead of clustered groups (not shown), however, the interpretation becomes more cumbersome due to the amount of variables involved.
The values for the instrumental texture parameters of Coalho cheeses made from cow’s, goat’s milk and their mixture Bleomycin cost during storage at 10 °C are shown in Table 3. The values of chewiness and cohesiveness presented no significant difference (P > 0.05), regardless of the kind of cheese and time of storage. During some assessed storage intervals (1, 14 and 21 days), CGM presented higher values for hardness than CCM. The time of storage presented no significant influence (P > 0.05) on the hardness of the cheeses. Mallatou
et al. (1994) noted that white-brined cheeses made from goat’s milk were harder compared to cheeses made from ewe’s milk. Pure caprine milk leads to production of a harder cheese than that produced using pure ovine milk. The differences in the rheological properties of cheeses made selleck chemical with different types of milk may be due to the different casein structures or their
concentrations in milk. Bovine milk contains higher levels of α-s1-casein than caprine milk (Ceballos et al., 2009). Some researchers have reported that the increase in the acidity of cheeses during storage causes changes in the characteristics of the protein aggregates and consequently in their texture, producing softer cheeses that are more easily fragmented. Although in this study the evaluated cheeses showed a decrease in pH values during the storage period, they did not exhibit changes in their hardness profiles, since cheeses were not ripened, and metabolic activity at 10 °C is limited. Cheeses with
lower pH values, mainly those close to the casein isoelectric point, possess textures with high gumminess, while cheeses with higher pH values present a more plastic texture (Bhaskaracharya & Shah, 2001). Moisture is also an important factor that influences the texture of cheeses because high initial moisture weakens the protein network, making the cheese matrix softer (Buriti, Rocha, & Saad, 2005). In this study, the DNA ligase highest values for moisture and lowest values for hardness were found in CCM for most of the evaluated storage periods. Furthermore, the proteolysis also influences the texture of cheeses, particularly the hardness (Chilliard et al., 2006), however in this case this contribution is also limited. Values for color evaluation parameters of Coalho cheeses made from cow’s milk, goat’s milk, and a mixture of the two during storage at 10 °C are shown in Table 4. In general, CCGM and CGM presented higher L* values (P < 0.05) from 7 days of storage onward. In color evaluation, the L* parameter indicates lightness and the capacity of an object to reflect or transmit light based on a scale ranging from 0 to 100. Therefore, higher lightness values result in clearer objects. The average L* values found for CCGM and CGM in this study were higher than those found by Sheehan et al. (2009) for semi-hard cheeses made from cow’s and goat’s milk. Higher a* values (P < 0.