8,9 The T reg cells function to dampen immune responses through a variety of approaches, including contact-mediated inhibition, secretion of perforin and granzyme A/B, sequestration of key growth factors such as IL-2, and secretion of suppressive cytokines including TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-35.7 Interleukin-10 in particular plays an important role in immune homeostasis, both in mice10 and humans,11 suggesting that it has several non-redundant find more roles in regulating inflammatory responses. Many cell types in addition to Foxp3+ cells12 can produce IL-10, most notably several lineages of CD4+ T cells,13 including Th1,14–16 Th214,17 and Th1718–20
cells, as well as various types of Treg cells.21 In a feed-forward mechanism, IL-10 can drive its own expression through the induction of an IL-10-producing Treg-cell population termed Tr1 cells.22,23 Conversely, IL-10 can also be induced independently of IL-10 signalling in both Foxp3+ and Foxp3− Treg-cell populations.24 Given its potent anti-inflammatory effects, various strategies are being explored to target IL-10 for therapeutic intervention.25 The intimate interplay between the critical factors in development
of Treg and Th17 cells, along with the dual reliance on TGF-β signalling for MI-503 datasheet their differentiation,26 has led to conceptualization of a Treg–Th17 axis. From a therapeutics perspective, the identification of drugs that promote pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses by influencing differentiation along this axis has gained momentum as examples of T-cell plasticity continue to be characterized,27 in particular within the Treg-cell and Th17-cell populations.28 Moreover, several reports have characterized ‘hybrid’ T-cell populations where Foxp3 is expressed in various effector T-cell populations,29 and IL-10
can be produced by Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells.12 These results PD184352 (CI-1040) suggest that it may be possible to treat disease by shifting the balance along the Treg–Th17 axis in situ during ongoing immune responses. For example, one mechanism to dampen inflammation would be to induce IL-10 expression within Th17 cells participating in pathological inflammation. To that end, targeting non-cytokine signalling pathways may be a viable option. For example, ATP,30 sphinogosine-1-phosphate31 and vitamin D32 can modulate Th17 development, whereas antigen-presenting cell (APC)-derived indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase33 and retinoic acid34 can promote Treg-cell populations, highlighting the importance of non-cytokine signalling pathways to this paradigm. Estrogen is a well-documented modulator of immune function in humans and mice, capable of increasing the expression of Foxp335 and IL-10.