abortus 2308  and B. abortus 9–941 . SNPs from the whole genome sequences were discovered using an in-house pipeline that performs pairwise comparisons of 200 base regions around each SNP using MUMMER [see . Determining the quality of the
putative SNPs is essential because only high quality sequence data should be used for developing genotyping analyses . Quality measures included the number of bases between SNPs and the number of bases that are conserved on each side of a SNP within a specified region. To reduce the potential effects of sequencing error, we then incorporated sequencing quality scores from Phred values. We selected only those putative SNPs with quality scores ≥30, average quality scores of SNP flanking regions (30 base pairs) ≥ 30, and where each base in the flanking regions
had a quality score ≥ 20. Perl and Java scripts were then employed for additional alignments and to compile check details and summarize the data. Using this process, 1000 putative SNPs were selected for interrogation by the MIP chip. SNP locations and flanking regions of 40 bases on each side were sent to the manufacturer for assay design (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). MIP primers and probes The MIP workflow is relatively straightforward: 1) SNPs are first discovered using comparisons of whole genomes or particular regions of interest within sequenced genomes; 2) a series of assays are created with primers Blasticidin S purchase Glutamate dehydrogenase targeting each SNP; 3) amplification products are generated in a single multiplexed PCR; 4) amplicons specific to each SNP for each sample are hybridized to a universal tag microarray; 5) each SNP is fluorescently labeled based on the corresponding nucleotide of the sample and is then visualized on the microarray. Primers and probes were designed for a GeneChip Custom 5 K SNP Kit (Affymetrix), which is one of the available forms of the MIP assay. In this assay, all 1000 SNPs were assessed in a single multiplex reaction for each sample. Assays containing ~3000 Francisella tularensis SNPs  and ~1000 Burkholderia pseudomallei
SNPs (Keim unpubl. data) were run concurrently on the same chip, which reduced the cost of the assays for each group. MIP technology involves a specific probe that binds to flanking sequence surrounding a SNP site. Due to the orientation of the MK-2206 ic50 oligonucleotide sequence, the probe anneals as an inverted loop and a single base gap is created at the SNP site. The base at the SNP site is then added in one of four reactions involving unlabeled nucleotides. After ligation and exonuclease steps, the probe released from the sequence is amplified with PCR using universal primers specific for a portion of all probes. Only those probes where the SNP base has been added are successfully amplified. For a full description of the MIP methodology, see Hardenbol et al. . Typically, approximately 80% of the MIP probes that are designed pass quality control and assurance standards at Affymetrix.