The non-affected limb decreased as well, although the non-affected limb was very sensitive to PRD initially, whereas
the affected limb was not. Based on these results, it was concluded that PRD is a better index of hyperreflexia, and this measurement could be more informative of synapse function than simple H-reflexes. This study presents a novel and non-pharmacological means of managing spasticity that warrants further investigation with the potential of being translated to the clinic. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Water is one major pathways by which the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogen enters aquaculture facilities. This paper describes the production and use of a capacitive biosensor for the quantitative detection of as little as 1 copy/mu
l of WSSV in shrimp pond OSI-027 research buy water. A glutathione-S-transferase tag for white spot binding protein (GST-WBP) Anlotinib chemical structure was immobilized on a gold electrode through a self-assembled monolayer. Binding between WSSV and the immobilized GST-WBP was directly detected by a capacitance measurement. Under optimum conditions, the capacitive biosensor detected WSSV over a wide linear range of between 1 and 1 x 10(5) copies/mu l. The system was highly selective for WSSV. One analysis cycle required only 20-25 min of analysis time and 25 min of regeneration time. The capacitive biosensor was applied to analyze WSSV concentration in eight shrimp pond water samples and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) method (P > 0.05). The immobilized GST-WBP provided
and could be reused for up to 39 analysis cycles for one electrode preparation with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4% and a good reproducibility of residual activity (95.8 +/- 2.3%). The appealing performance of this biosensor indicated that it had great potential for an accurate very sensitive, quantitative, detection method for WSSV. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect two different NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase kinds of signals from the human brain: the hemodynamic response (slow) and the neuronal response (fast). This paper explores a nonlinear aspect in the tactile-stimulus-evoked neuronal optical response over a NIRS time series (light intensity variation). The existence of the fast optical responses (FORs) over the time series recorded in stimulus sessions is confirmed by event-related averaging. The chaos levels of the NIRS time series recorded both in stimulus and in rest sessions are then identified according to the estimated largest Lyapunov exponent. The obtained results ascertain that stimulus-evoked neuronal optical responses can be detected in the somatosensory cortex using continuous-wave NIRS equipment. Further, the results strongly suggest that the chaos level can be used to recognize the FORs in NIRS time series and, thereby, the state of the pertinent brain activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.