The proteases HAT (human airway trypsin-like protease) and TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine S1 member 2) known to be present in the human airways were previously identified as proteases that cleave HA. We studied subcellular localization of HA cleavage and cleavage inhibition of seasonal
influenza virus A/Memphis/14/96 (H1N1) and pandemic virus A/Hamburg/5/ 2009 (H1N1) in MDCK cells that express HAT and TMPRSS2 under doxycycline-induced transcriptional activation. We made the following observations: (i) HA is cleaved by membrane-bound TMPRSS2 and HAT and not by soluble forms released into the supernatant; (ii) HAT cleaves newly synthesized HA before or during the release of progeny virions and HA of ZD1839 datasheet incoming viruses prior to endocytosis at the cell surface, whereas IDO inhibitor TMPRSS2 cleaves newly synthesized HA within the cell and is not able to support the proteolytic activation of HA of incoming virions; and (iii) cleavage activation of HA and virus spread in TMPRSS2- and HAT-expressing cells can be suppressed by peptide mimetic protease inhibitors. The further development of these inhibitors could lead to new drugs for influenza treatment.”
“Bocavirus is a newly classified genus
of the family Parvovirinae. Infection with Bocavirus minute virus of canines (MVC) produces a strong cytopathic effect in permissive Walter Reed/3873D (WRD) canine cells. We have systematically characterized the MVC infection-produced cytopathic effect in WRD cells, namely, the cell death and cell cycle arrest, and carefully examined how MVC infection induces the cytopathic effect. We found that
MVC infection induces an apoptotic cell death characterized by Bax translocalization to the mitochondrial outer membrane, selleck chemical disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, and caspase activation. Moreover, we observed that the activation of caspases occurred only when the MVC genome was replicating, suggesting that replication of the MVC genome induces apoptosis. MVC infection also induced a gradual cell cycle arrest from the S phase in early infection to the G(2)/M phase at a later stage, which was confirmed by the upregulation of cyclin B1 and phosphorylation of cdc2. Cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase was reproduced by transfection of a nonreplicative NS1 knockout mutant of the MVC infectious clone, as well as by inoculation of UV-irradiated MVC. In contrast with other parvoviruses, only expression of the MVC proteins by transfection did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MVC infection induces a mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis that is dependent on the replication of the viral genome, and the MVC genome per se is able to arrest the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase. Our results may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of Bocavirus infection in general.