About 0 03% of all sequences could not be defined at the phylum l

About 0.03% of all sequences could not be defined at the phylum level, BMS202 purchase while the rest belonged to 12 phyla. Among these 12 phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (most were from the class Gammaproteobacteria) encompassed the majority of sequences (> 99%). The other phyla comprised a minor portion in each mouse (Figure 1A). For the phyla Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes, less than five sequences were found in the total analyzed reads. Surprisingly, the oral microbiota from captive mice were dominated by only a few thriving species/phylotypes. Most of the phylotypes (defined by 97% sequence similarity) identified in this study were present at very low levels.

The ten most frequently found species/phylotypes represented more than 88% of the oral microbiota in each animal (Figure 1B). In particular, Streptococcus EU453973_s, which is a tentative species (phylotype) represented by the GenBank accession no. EU453973, was the most dominant phylotype in six out of eight mice examined, and represented 59% to 94% of all sequence reads analyzed in each animal. In mouse WT2, Streptococcus EU453973_s accounted for only 0.02% of the total bacteria, and instead of Streptococcus EU453973_s, lactobacilli and Gilteritinib purchase staphylococci were the dominant bacteria. This finding agrees with the findings of a previous report on the indigenous

cultivable oral bacteria of C57BL/6 mice AG-881 clinical trial [4]. An unidentified Streptococcus species has been previously reported to eventually dominate the murine oral microbiota by displacing the other bacterial species. This bacterium was present in mice originating from the Jackson Laboratory, but not in mice from Charles River [16]. The C57BL/6 wild-type mice used in this study were purchased from the Orient Co., which originated from Charles River. It is not possible to confirm PTK6 whether the streptococci observed in the study conducted by Marcotte et al. [16] corresponds to Streptococcus EU453973_s identified in the present study, due to a lack of sequence data from the previous study. Mouse

WT2 was housed at the Laboratory Animal Facility of our school for only three weeks, whereas the three other wild-type mice were housed for eight or nine weeks in the same room with the TLR2-deficient mice. Thus, the microbial community of WT2 may represent that of the mice from Charles River without the dominant Streptococcus species. The effect of the housing environment and the suppliers on the composition of mouse oral microbiota has been previously reported [16, 17]. Figure 1 The major phyla and species/phylotypes identified in murine oral bacterial communities. (A) Only phyla with a mean relative abundance greater than 0.01% are shown. (B) The top ten dominant species/phylotypes are shown. The right panel presents the mean values of the WT and KO groups. *, p < 0.05.

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