AD has been involved in drafting the manuscript and in measuring

AD has been VX-680 ic50 involved in drafting the manuscript and in measuring the CARS spectra. RK has been involved in drafting the manuscript. VF carried out the synthesis of the graphene nanoplatelets. OP carried out the synthesis of graphene oxide and participated in drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

Tin dioxide (SnO2) has drawn a great interest, among other oxides, related the response to oxidizing and reducing gases [1]. Microbiology inhibitor Nowadays the research is focusing on nanostructured materials, among other nanowires, because they have a large surface-to-volume ratio and show enhanced chemical stability and electrical performances [2, 3]. However, thin film technology is a core high-yield fabrication method for real-world sensors because of the main advantages such as low power consumption. In order to improve selectivity and sensitivity of the SnO2 thin films-based gas sensors, various dopants are used. It is well known that SnO2 thin film sensors doped with Ag additives

are very sensitive to low concentration of volatile sulfides such as H2S in air [4]. Up to now, this mechanism is not fully clear. However, it is certain that the influence of dopants like Ag must be related to the variation of the surface chemistry, morphology, and electronic properties of SnO2 thin films. Apart from the above, one of the most technologically relevant and still scarcely addressed problem in the world of real sensors is their degradation in time. This is why selleck the aging effect of SnO2 thin films after their air exposure related mainly to the undesired and uncontrolled C carbon

contamination coming from CO2 in the atmosphere is also of great importance [5]. This is even more serious when SnO2 nanostructures are covered with Ag additives. The aging problem in the case of pure SnO2 nanolayers prepared by laser-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (L-CVD) method has been already addressed in our recent studies [5, 6]. The main observation from Grape seed extract this study was that long-term exposure (aging) in dry air of L-CVD SnO2 thin films caused them to be covered with a large amount of undesired carbon species. They can be reduced after their ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) annealing up to 670 K. However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method cannot give any information concerning the forms of desorbing species. One can expect that this desorption process can be affected by the presence of Ag surface additives. This type of information can be obtained using, for instance, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method. This is why in this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of the surface chemistry and morphology of Ag-covered L-CVD SnO2 nanolayers carried out by XPS in combination with TDS, respectively.

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