[Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009; 55(4): 475-83]“
“Objective: Commun

[Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009; 55(4): 475-83]“
“Objective: Communication with critically ill patients in intensive care settings generates specific challenges for nursing staff, and demands well-developed skills.\n\nMethods: A study was conducted in two phases using qualitative methods to characterise and standardise verbal communication used with patients. The first phase consisted of a systematic search and content

analysis of the literature concerning communication and verbal stimulation of unconscious patients.\n\nResults: The results of the content analysis were LOXO-101 then used in phase two and informed the development of a standardised stimulus message. There appear to be four main problem areas: basic difficulty in communicating with a patient who cannot respond; pressures of the working environment; limited knowledge about unconscious patients’ needs; limited detailed knowledge

of why or how to communicate with unconscious patients.\n\nConclusion: The stimulus developed, has been shown to facilitate the communication with the unconscious patients.”
“The number of dengue cases has been increasing on a global level in recent years, and particularly so in Malaysia, yet little is known about the effects of weather for identifying click here the short-term risk of dengue for the population. The aim of this paper is to estimate the weather effects on dengue disease accounting for non-linear temporal effects in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2010. We selected the weather parameters with a Poisson generalized additive model, and then assessed the effects of minimum temperature, bi-weekly accumulated rainfall and wind speed on dengue cases using Smoothened Agonist molecular weight a distributed non-linear lag model while adjusting for trend, day-of-week and week of the year. We found that the relative risk of dengue cases is positively associated with increased minimum temperature at a cumulative percentage change of 11.92% (95% CI: 4.41-32.19), from 25.4 degrees C to 26.5 degrees C, with

the highest effect delayed by 51 days. Increasing bi-weekly accumulated rainfall had a positively strong effect on dengue cases at a cumulative percentage change of 21.45% (95% CI: 8.96, 51.37), from 215 mm to 302 mm, with the highest effect delayed by 26-28 days. The wind speed is negatively associated with dengue cases. The estimated lagged effects can be adapted in the dengue early warning system to assist in vector control and prevention plan.”
“P>Stargazin is a transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor regulatory protein that controls the surface and synaptic expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Synaptic anchoring of AMPARs is influenced by the interaction between stargazin’s C-terminal post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) ligand and the synaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95.

Synergy between carbon nanotubes and clay and the brominated fire

Synergy between carbon nanotubes and clay and the brominated fire retardant was studied by thermogravimetric analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry and cone calorimetry. Nanotubes are more efficient than

clay in improving the flame retardancy of the materials and promoting carbonization in the polystyrene matrix. Comparison of the results from the microscale combustion calorimeter and the cone calorimeter indicate that the rate of change of the peak heat release rate reduction in the microscale combustion calorimeter was slower than that in the cone. Both heat release capacity and reduction in the peak heat release rate in the microscale combustion calorimeter are important for screening the flame retardant materials; they show good correlations with the cone parameters, peak heat release rate and total heat released. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The R406 inhibitor characteristics of anaerobic digestion of pig manure from different growth stages were investigated. According to growth stage, batch experiments were performed THZ1 research buy using gestating sow manure (GSM), swine nursery with post-weaned piglet

manure (SNM), growing fattening manure (GFM) and mixed manure (MM) as substrates at four substrate concentrations (40, 50, 65 and 80 gVS/L) under mesophilic conditions. The maximum methane yields of MM, SNM, GSM and GFM were 354.7, 328.7, 282.4 and 263.5 mL CH4/gVS(added), respectively. Volatile fatty acids/total inorganic carbon (VFA/TIC) ratio increased from 0.10

to 0.89 when loading increased from 40 to 80 gVS/L for GFM. The modified Gompertz model shows a better fit to the experimental results than the first order model with a lower difference between measured and predicted methane yields. The kinetic parameters indicated that the methane production curve on the basis of differences in biodegradability of the pig manure at different growth stages. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) Galardin order is effective for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT), but CDT remains partially effective for subacute DVT. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled single-centre clinical trial to compare CDT alone with CDT with additional balloon dilatation for the treatment of iliofemoral DVT. The trial was performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Iliofemoral DVT patients lacking effective therapy before enrollment were randomly assigned either to CDT (control group) or to CDT with additional balloon dilatation (intervention group). Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study-Quality of Life (VEINES-QOL), Severity of Venous Lower Limb Symptoms (VEINES-Sym), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Villalta scores were obtained at scheduled follow-up.

The total wave function fulfills the Pauli-principle across all b

The total wave function fulfills the Pauli-principle across all borders and levels of electron correlation. We develop the associated response theory for this multi-level coupled cluster theory and present proof of principle applications. The formalism is an essential tool in order to obtain size-intensive complexity in the calculation of local molecular properties. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Aim: To examine whether danshensu could protect vascular endothelia in a rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia.\n\nMethods: The model was established this website by feeding rats with a methionine-rich diet (1 g.kg(-1)d(-1)) for 3 months. Immediately following

the discontinuation of methionine-rich diet, rats were treated with danshensu (67.5 mg.kg(-1)d(-1), po) or saline for 3 additional months. One group of rats receiving vitamin mixture (folic acid,

vitamin B12 and vitamin B6) was included as a positive control. One group of rats not exposed to methionine-rich diet was also included as a blank control. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein in the descending aorta was examined using immunohistochemistry MEK162 research buy and Western blot. Homocysteine and blood concentration of endothelin and nitric oxide (NO) was also examined.\n\nResults: Methionine-rich diet resulted in accumulation of “foam cells”, up-regulated expression of TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 in the descending aorta, and significantly increased serum homocysteine. Plasma endothelin concentration was significantly increased; NO was decreased. Danshensu treatment, either simultaneous to methionine-rich diet or afterwards, attenuated the above mentioned changes.\n\nConclusion: Chronic treatment with danshensu could prevent/attenuate the formation of atherosclerosis. Potential mechanisms include inhibited expression of representative proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in arterial endothelia. Changes in homocysteine and circulating molecules that control vascular contraction/relaxation via endothelial cells (eg, endothelin Anlotinib research buy and NO) were also implicated.”

catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was investigated by using various rare earth metal trifluoromethanesulfonates, that is, Yb(OTf)(3), Sc(OTf)(3), Ho(OTf)(3), Sm(OTf)(3), Nd(OTf)(3) as catalysts in DMSO. It is found that the catalytic activity increases with decreasing ionic radius of rare earth metal cations. Among the examined catalysts, Sc(OTf)(3) exhibits the highest catalytic activity. Fructose conversion of 100% and a HMF yield of 83.3% are obtained at 120 degrees C after 2 h by using Sc(OTf)(3) as the catalyst. Moreover, the catalytic dehydration of fructose was also carried out in different solvents, for example, DMA, 1,4-dioxane, and a mixture of PEG-400 and water.

This qualitative study explored patients’ expectations of a super

This qualitative study explored patients’ expectations of a supervised exercise rehabilitation program following lung transplantation. MethodsParticipants undertook two MK-8931 supplier semi-structured interviews, one before and one after the rehabilitation program.

Interviews were digitally recorded, and themes were developed using line-by-line iterative thematic analysis and grounded theory. ResultsEighteen adults (11 females) with mean age of 52 participated in a mean of 26 sessions of exercise training. Themes were (i) desire for normalcy including resuming family roles and performing everyday activities; (ii) the importance of rehabilitation as the mechanism for how this transformation occurred; (iii) the benefits of exercising in a group setting; and (iv) the limitations on rehabilitation that were imposed by comorbidities, either existing pre-transplant or occurring as a postoperative sequelae. ConclusionPost-transplant exercise rehabilitation was perceived as a highly valuable tool that assisted recipients to return to normal life. Group exercise was motivational, offered peer support, and therefore PD-1/PD-L1 assay was advantageous to assist patients to achieve their desired physical performance level following transplantation.”

stability depends on an efficient DNA damage repair system to keep the chromosomes intact. Unrepaired DNA damage not only causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, but also accumulates genome mutations. DNA damage response (DDR) exhibits a critical function on the protection against human cancer, as indicated by the high predisposition to cancer of individuals with germ-line mutations in DDR genes. However, a defective DNA repair is liked intimately with the unchecked proliferation and the intrinsic AZD6244 resistance to clinical DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, abrogation of specific proteins in DNA damage repair pathways is a promising strategy for developing targeted cancer treatments. It

may sound paradoxical to inhibit DDR pathway for sensitization of clinical therapy because cancer promotion and malignant transformation are aided by deficient DNA repair pathways. Actually, DDR acts as a positive guardian of genomic stability to prevent from tumorigenesis. On the other hand, DDR also performs as a negative saboteur to resist chemo- and radiotherapy. In this regard, DDR functions as “a double-edged sword” in cancer prevention and cancer therapy. The defective DDR that makes cancer cells of high mutability should alternatively provide therapeutic opportunities that confer the lethality to cancer cells without harming normal cells. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Reports of atypical femur fracture in bisphosphonate-exposed women have prompted interest in characterizing the clinical profiles of these patients.

Within switchers, median time to switch was 53 days Switching

Within switchers, median time to switch was 53 days. Switching

patients had generally a more severe selleck kinase inhibitor psychiatric profile, including more previous episodes of depression or other psychiatric disorders. They also had a higher proportion of concurrent psychiatric disorders (especially anxiety) and concomitant prescription of anxiolytics or hypnotics. Patients initially prescribed amitriptyline were almost twice as likely to switch (27%) as patients prescribed venlafaxine (17%) or an SSRI (15%). Conclusions: This population-based study confirmed that antidepressant switch is more likely to occur within the first 3 months of treatment and in patients with a more severe psychiatric profile. A particular attention paid to these patients within the early phase of treatment may therefore help to improve their management.”
“A number

of single selleck chemical gene mutations in laboratory mice produce hair follicle defects resulting in deformed hair shafts. The radiation-induced (SB/LeJ-Foxq1(sa)) satin mutant mice have a satin-like sheen to their hair and dilute colouration. This sheen is due to failure of the hair shafts to develop normal medullas, while the pigment dilution is due to the unrelated beige (lysosomal trafficking regulator, Lyst(bg)) mutation. A new allelic mutation, Foxq1(sa-J), arose spontaneously on the albino (tyrosinase, Tyr(c)) MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) background. The Foxq1(sa-J) allele has a C to T transition at position 490. By contrast, the Foxq1(sa) mutant allele was confirmed to be a 67 base pair deletion followed by two base changes (GA to AT). Morphologic changes were similar to those seen in Hoxc13 transgenic and targeted mutant mice. This new allelic mutation provides yet another tool to investigate formation of the interior structures of hair shafts.”
“People vary in their proneness to dominate as a function of their motivation to fulfill their need for reward and social status. Recent research suggests that in humans dominant individuals respond vigilantly to angry faces, whereas non-dominant individuals

rapidly signal submission. Dominance motivation Selleck Napabucasin has been suggested to reside in asymmetrical patterns of cortical and subcortical processing. The ratio between delta and beta band oscillations has been proposed as a proxy for this asymmetry, which we here aimed to map onto individual patterns of the event-related potentials (N170) as well as behavioral responses to facial anger in the context of dominance motivation. Results show that dominance motivation indeed predicts increased delta in the delta/beta asymmetry; a pattern that further translates into behavioral vigilance as well as attenuation of the event-related response to angry faces. The present data are interpreted to suggest that dominance motivation is related to increased subcortical and decreased cortical processing, and that this translates into increased vigilance in dominance challenges.

The cats were intubated

The cats were intubated check details and ventilated with a mixture of oxygen and air. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed by single twitch monitoring. Rocuronium 0.5 mg/kg i.v. was administered. After spontaneous

recovery from neuromuscular block, both renal pedicles were ligated. A second dose of rocuronium 0.5 mg/kg i.v. was given. One minute after disappearance of the twitches, in Group 1 placebo (0.9% saline) and in Group 2 sugammadex 5.0 mg/kg i.v. was administered. Onset time, duration of neuromuscular block, and time to recovery to 25, 50, 75, and 90% were determined.\n\nAfter renal pedicle ligation, sugammadex reversed rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block significantly faster than spontaneous recovery. Mean time (SEM) to 90% recovery of the twitch response

was 4.7 (0.25) min (Group 2) versus 31.1 (5.0) min (Group 1) (p < 0.0001). No signs of recurrence of neuromuscular block were observed for 90 min after complete twitch restoration. Sugammadex caused no significant cardiovascular effects.\n\nSugammadex rapidly and effectively reversed rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in anesthetized cats, even when both renal pedicles were ligated and renal elimination of the drugs was no longer possible.”
“The ability to identify and focus care to patients at higher risk of moderate to severe postoperative pain should improve analgesia and patient Milciclib molecular weight satisfaction, and may affect reimbursement. We undertook this multi-centre cross-sectional study to identify preoperative risk factors for moderate to severe pain after total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacement.\n\nA total of 897 patients were identified from electronic medical records. Preoperative information and anaesthetic technique was gained by retrospective

chart review. The primary outcomes were moderate to severe pain (pain score a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 4/10) at rest and with activity on postoperative day one. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for moderate to severe pain.\n\nModerate to severe pain was reported by 20 % at rest and 33 % with activity. Predictors for pain at rest were female gender (OR 1.10 selleck with 95 % CI 1.01-1.20), younger age (0.96, 0.94-0.99), increased BMI (1.02, 1.01-1.03), TKR vs. THR (3.21, 2.73-3.78), increased severity of preoperative pain at the surgical site (1.15, 1.03-1.30), preoperative use of opioids (1.63, 1.32-2.01), and general anaesthesia (8.51, 2.13-33.98). Predictors for pain with activity were TKR vs. THR (1.42, 1.28-1.57), increased severity of preoperative pain at the surgical site (1.11, 1.04-1.19), general anaesthesia (9.02, 3.68-22.07), preoperative use of anti-convulsants (1.78, 1.32-2.40) and anti-depressants (1.50, 1.08-2.80), and prior surgery at the surgical site (1.28, 1.05-1.57).

These rates were lower than those of their healthy peers Among t

These rates were lower than those of their healthy peers. Among the sexually active patients, 36% of the young adults and 72% of the adolescents engaged in one or more types of potentially risky sexual behavior (i.e., two or more partners in the past 3 months, questionable birth control, using

drugs or alcohol before Selleckchem Fludarabine sex at least sometimes). Women with complex CHD had the highest levels of concern regarding their fertility and risk of genetic transmission of CHD, as well as concerns about adverse effects of pregnancy on their own health.\n\nConclusions: Sexual health should be discussed with adolescents and young adults with CHD. Particular attention should be given to discussing sexual health with women who have complex CHD. (c) 2007

Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Integrin alpha 3 beta 1 is expressed on many types of cancer cells and can regulate tumor growth and progression. In the present study, we examined the roles and molecular mechanism of integrin alpha 3 beta 1 in modulating cell proliferation and migration of p53-deficient non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Reduced expression of integrin alpha 3 by RNA silencing clearly induces cell proliferation and migration in H1299 cells, compared with those in control cells. Enhanced proliferation in integrin alpha 3-silenced cells is mediated by upregulation and nuclear localization of cyclin-dependent kinases, and these effects require check details the activation of Akt and ERK as evidenced by treatment with LY294002 and PD98059, respectively. Furthermore, suppression of integrin ERK inhibition alpha

3 expression induces the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and Bcl-2 as well as epidermal growth factor receptor, which are positively correlated with cell proliferation and survival. In contrast, increase in cell migration of integrin alpha 3-silenced cells is found to be independent of Akt or ERK signaling pathways. Collectively, these findings suggest that integrin alpha 3 beta 1 plays pivotal roles in regulating cell proliferation and migration that enhance the invasive type of p53-deficient NSCLC cells.”
“Massive posttraumatic bleeding is the leading cause of potentially preventable death among patients with severe trauma. Immediate diagnosis and treatment of traumatic coagulopathy and its differentiation from surgical bleeding after major trauma are critical in the management of such patients. In this case report, we present a 33-year-old woman who had multiple injuries to the head and trunk in motor vehicle collision, resulting in severe bleeding and necessitating emergency surgery. We demonstrate how repeated rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography analyses were used to direct the choice of therapy to stabilize her circulatory system for surgery and to differentiate surgical bleed from coagulopathy.

- Neuroglial cysts are uncommon congenital lesion with own

- Neuroglial cysts are uncommon congenital lesion with own

wall, which can be confined into or outside the central nervous system. In the central nervous system the cyst is located commonly in the brain. Spinal intramedullary neuroglial cyst are exceptional. Our objective is to present a case of intramedullary neuroglial cyst, to discuss the differentiels diagnosis and to show difficulties of its medical taking care.\n\nCase report. – A 60 year-old man, without Selleck Adavosertib past history, was admitted to the hospital with a compression of conus medullaris since one year. The clinical examination revealed paraparesis and genito-sphincterian disorders. MRI of the spine revealed intramedullary cyst at T12-L1 level. The patient underwent cystic evacuation, a large marsupialization of the cavity and a wall biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of neuroglial

cyst. The postoperative outcome was favourable with a partial improvement of motor weakness. Postoperative MRI showed a persistent residual cavity.\n\nConclusion. – Neuroglial intramedullary cyst is uncommon. It is a benign lesion. Complete surgical resection is very difficult seen the absence of defined plan cleavage. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier LY3039478 cost Masson SAS.”
“InPBi was predicted to be the most robust infrared optoelectronic material but also the most difficult to synthesize within In-VBi (V 5 P, As and Sb) 25 years ago. We report the first successful growth of InPBi single crystals with Bi concentration far beyond the doping level by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InPBi thin films reveal excellent surface,

structural and optical qualities making it a promising new III-V compound family member for heterostructures. The Bi concentration is found to be 2.4 +/- 0.4% with 94 +/- 5% Bi atoms at substitutional sites. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 1.23 eV at room temperature while photoluminescence shows unexpectedly strong and broad light emission at 1.4-2.7 mmwhich can’t be explained by the existing theory.”
“A series of 4-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-6-yl)-5(3)-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)imidazoles and -pyrazoles 14a-c, 15a-c, 16a, 16b, 19a-d, 21a, and 21b has been synthesized and evaluated Fedratinib nmr for their ALK5 inhibitory activity in an enzyme assay and in a cell-based luciferase reporter assay. Among them, the pyrazole derivative 21b inhibited ALK5 phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 0.018 mu M and showed 95% inhibition at 0.03 mu M in a luciferase reporter assay using HaCaT cells permanently transfected with p3TP-luc reporter construct. The 21b showed a high selectivity index of 284 against p38 alpha MAP kinase. The binding pose of 21b generated by docking analysis reveals that it fits well into the ATP binding cavity of ALK5 by forming several hydrogen bond interactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tests were performed in microcosms in climate-controlled

Tests were performed in microcosms in climate-controlled

rooms at five different temperatures. Daphnia magna, a common water flea, served as prey. On ave-rage D. villosus PF-04929113 supplier showed the highest consumption rate of Daphnia magna over the entire temperature range, followed in decreasing order by G. pulex, G. roeselii and G. fossarum. The predation rate of all species showed a distinct peak at 20 degrees C. Correction of predation rates for body size gave somewhat different results. D. villosus is then still the most predatory of all gammaridean species tested followed by G. pulex, G. fossarum and G. roeselii. The outcome of the Daphnia tests is consistent with results of other studies with different prey. This supports that the Daphnia test is a good and quick indicator of the predatory abilities in gammaridean species at varying temperatures, and allows the prediction of how changing temperature regimes

influence invasion impacts [Current Zoology 57 (6): 836-843, 2011].”
“To investigate the applicability, safety, short-term and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of right-sided colon carcinomas with D3 lymphadenectomy. Between June 2003 and September 2010, 324 patients with right-sided colon carcinoma underwent surgical treatment in the same hospital, 177 cases were treated by laparoscopic surgery (LRH group) and 147 cases by open surgery (ORH group). We performed a retrospective analysis of the differences between the two groups in terms of the clinical data. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the demographic AZD5582 mouse data; however, the recovery time was significantly shorter in the LRH group, the number of overall lymph nodes harvested

and principle lymph nodes harvested in the LRH group was significantly higher than in the ORH group, the incidence of postoperative complications was 12.99 % in the LRH group and 22.45 % in the ORH group (P smaller than 0.05), and the recurrence Small molecule library order rate in the LRH group was lower than that in the ORH group, although the difference was not significant (15.25 vs 19.73 %). The cumulative overall survival for all stages at 1, 3 and 5 years in the LRH group (97.18, 83.73 and 70.37 %) were not significantly different compared to those in the ORH group (94.56, 77.84 and 66.97 %). Laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas is safe and effective, while it is also superior to open surgery regarding the short-term outcomes, and the long-term outcomes are similar to those of open surgery.”
“Compared to other countries, caviar production in Turkey has a short history, which began principally in the early 1950s, peaked during the 1960s, and began to decline towards the end of the 1970s. Sturgeon fishery was practiced in the estuaries of the rivers Kzlrmak, Yeilrmak, Sakarya and Coruh.

Moreover, the manifestations of the disease should be considered

Moreover, the manifestations of the disease should be considered seriously regardless of attributing them to drug use.”
“Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects

who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older patients. Design A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective, longitudinal study on behavioral symptoms of dementia and MCI was performed. The study population consisted of 270 MCI, 402 AD patients, PLX4032 cost and 108 healthy controls. Behavioral assessment was performed by means of Middelheim Frontality Score, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Results Moderate-to-severe behavioral symptoms were present in 13% of MCI patients, as compared with 39% in AD patients and 3% C188-9 in controls (p<0.001). The general severity of behavioral symptoms was intermediate between controls and AD patients. The three most frequent

symptoms in MCI patients were aggressiveness (49%), affective disturbance (45%), and anxiety (38%); in AD patients, the most frequent symptoms were aggressiveness (60%), activity disturbances (54%), and psychosis (40%). The prevalence and severity of frontal lobe symptoms, aggressiveness, activity disturbances, and delusions was intermediate between normal aging and AD. In addition, the severity of physically non-aggressive and verbally PXD101 cell line agitated behavior and the severity of depressive symptoms were also intermediate. Conclusions The behavioral profile of MCI patients is characterized as an intermediate state between normal aging and AD for the prevalence and severity of certain behavioral symptoms. Follow-up is ongoing to test the hypothesis that behavioral disturbances in MCI predict progression to dementia. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

aeruginosa and Microcystis wesenbergii are two cyanobacteria commonly found in eutrophic shallow lakes. Previous studies reported that microcystin-producing M. aeruginosa could have an increased competitive potential on other algae and aquatic plants, and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was regarded as an allelochemical. Based on this hypothesis, the allelopathic interaction between these two cyanobacteria was studied for the first time under laboratory conditions, and potential allelochemicals were screened. Cyanobacteria biomass and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) concentration were monitored under different culture conditions. The potential allelochemicals from M. aeruginosa were investigated by extract fractionation and GC(LC)/MS analysis. The growth of M. wesenbergii was inhibited by the addition of cell-free filtrates of M. aeruginosa whereas M. aeruginosa was promoted by the addition of cell-free filtrates of M. wesenbergii. The higher polarity the extract of M.