(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics [DOI: 10 1063/1 3042236]“

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3042236]“
“Incretin-based therapies represent one of the

most promising options in type 2 diabetes treatment owing to their good effectiveness with low risk of hypoglycemia and no weight gain. Other numerous potential beneficial effects of incretin-based therapies FK228 clinical trial have been suggested based mostly on experimental and small clinical studies including its beta-cell-and vasculo-protective actions. One of the recently emerged interesting features of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is its possible protective effect on the diabetic kidney disease. Here, we review the renal effects of DPP-4 inhibitors with special focus on its influence on the onset and progression of microalbuminuria, as presence of microalbuminuria represents an important early sign of kidney damage and is also associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia and cardiovascular complications. Mechanisms underlying possible nephroprotective properties of DPP-4 inhibitors Selleckchem OSI-744 include reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation and improvement of endothelial dysfunction. Effects of DPP-4 inhibitors may be both glucagon-like

peptide-1 (GLP-1) dependent and independent. Ongoing prospective studies focused on the nephroprotective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors will further clarify its possible role in the prevention/attenuation of diabetic kidney disease beyond its glucose lowering properties.”
“Microvascular free tissue transfer has GDC-0068 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor become an integral part of head and neck reconstruction. The role for it has widened in this era of organ preservation and surgical salvage. There are many reports on the influence of radiotherapy on the success of microvascular head and neck reconstruction,

though there is a paucity of reports studying its effect after chemoradiotherapy. This article reviews the existing evidence regarding the influence of prior radiotherapy on microvascular free tissue transfer and sets a platform for further studies in the current setting of organ preservation with chemoradiotherapy and surgical salvage. Laboratory studies on animals, though demonstrating considerable tissue damage, could not find any influence of radiotherapy on the patency of the anastomosed vessels. Flap failure is reported to be more common after preoperative radiotherapy, but majority of the studies could not demonstrate a significant difference due to the lack of statistical power owing to the very high success rate of microvascular free flap surgery. Operative complications increased as the time between radiotherapy and surgery increased. There are very few reports on the outcome of free flap reconstruction after the organ preservation regimens of chemoradiotherapy. Such outcome studies would be coming forth in the near future.

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