Furthermore, we report sustained multi-mode oscillations and pote

Furthermore, we report sustained multi-mode oscillations and potentially chaotic see more behavior caused by a sequestration-based feedback mechanism. Finally, we investigate the interplay between sequestration and external feedback loops. Our analysis thereby confirms, extends and generalizes previous results obtained by conventional modeling and points out the diversity of dynamics that sequestration can bring about. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“Brain vasopressin plays a role in behavioral and cognitive functions and in pathological conditions. Relevant examples are pair bonding, social recognition, fear responses, stress disorders, anxiety and depression. At the neuronal level, vasopressin exerts its effects by binding to Via receptors. In the brainstem, vasopressin can excite facial motoneurons by generating a sustained

inward current which is sodium-dependent, tetrodotoxin-insensitive and voltage-gated. This effect is independent of intracellular calcium mobilization and is unaffected by phospholipase C beta (PLC beta) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. There are two major unsolved problems. (i) What is the intracellular signaling pathway activated by vasopressin? (ii) What is the exact nature of the vasopressin-sensitive cation channels? We performed recordings in brainstem slices. Facial motoneurons were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell selleck inhibitor configuration. We show that a major fraction, if not the totality, of the peptide effect was mediated by cAMP signaling and that the vasopressin-sensitive cation channels were directly gated by cAMP. These channels appear to exclude lithium, are suppressed by 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane

(2-APB) and flufenamic acid (FFA) but not by ruthenium red or amiloride. They are distinct from transient receptor channels and from cyclic nucleotide-regulated channels involved in visual and olfactory transduction. They present striking similarities with cation channels present in a variety of molluscan Sinomenine neurons. To our knowledge, the presence in mammalian neurons of channels having these properties has not been previously reported. Our data should contribute to a better knowledge of the neural mechanism of the central actions of vasopressin, and may be potentially significant in view of clinical applications. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dynasore was recently developed as a small molecule, selective non-competitive inhibitor of the protein dynamin. This inhibitor has been shown to block dynamin-dependent endocytosis and is now used commonly to study vesicular recycling at synapses. We have measured the effects of dynasore on spontaneous and evoked transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction and shown that, in addition to inhibiting endocytosis, dynasore increases the probability of transmitter release.

The double variant M150L/F312C was most proficient at o-dianisidi

The double variant M150L/F312C was most proficient at o-dianisidine oxidation with dioxygen as the electron acceptor (5.5X wt), and the M150L single variant was most proficient at o-dianisidine oxidation with nitrite as the electron acceptor (8.5X wt). The library generation and screening method can

be employed for evolving new reductase functions in NiR and for screening of efficient folding ABT-737 chemical structure of engineered NiRs.”
“Purpose: Functional volume preservation after partial nephrectomy is a primary determinant of kidney function. We identified tumor features, including R.E.N.A.L. (radius for tumor size as maximal diameter, exophytic/endophytic tumor properties, nearness of deepest portion of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior descriptor and location relative to polar line) and centrality index nephrometry scores, associated with volume loss after partial nephrectomy.

Materials and Methods: A chart and imaging review was done for 237 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy from 2007 to 2010 and met study inclusion criteria. R.E.N.A.L. and centrality index nephrometry scores were measured in all patients. Percent functional volume preservation was estimated a median of 1.4 years after surgery using the cylindrical volume ratio method. Statistical analysis was done to study associations.


Independent tumor features associated with percent functional volume preservation included tumor diameter (p < 0.001) and the distance from tumor periphery to kidney center (p = 0.02). R.E.N.A.L. and centrality index scores were associated with percent GSK J4 mouse functional volume preservation selleck compound (each p < 0.001). Nephrometry scores were also associated with nadir and late

percent glomerular filtration rate preservation. Tumors classified as highly complex, with a centrality index score of 1.5 or less and a R.E.N.A.L. score of 10 or greater, were associated with an average 28% to 30% functional parenchymal volume loss of operated kidneys. A mean 8% difference in percent functional volume preservation was observed among low, intermediate and high tumor complexity categories for R.E.N.A.L. and centrality index scores.

Conclusions: R.E.N.A.L. and centrality index nephrometry scores were associated with changes in the percent functional volume preservation and the perioperative functional decrease. Nephrometry scores performed better than diameter alone on statistical analysis. Nephrometry scores may be useful to estimate the likelihood of operative volume loss and by proxy the functional outcome.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by decreased dopamine, intracellular inclusions (Lewy bodies) and brain iron deposits. PD has also been related with reduced ferroxidase activity, diminished antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation.

This mixture induced persistent adverse

This mixture induced persistent adverse click here effects, as adult male mammary glands showed hypertrophic growth. A reduced anogenital distance in newborn males indicated an anti-androgenic mode of action. Testosterone levels, testis and prostate weights, and expression of selected genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does

not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels. Further studies are warranted to increase the knowledge upon which risk assessment on dietary phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and infancy is based. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) present in cigarette smoke. We previously showed that B[a]p adversely affects follicular development and survival. The objective of this study was to identify the key molecular pathways underlying B[a]P-induced abnormal follicular development. Isolated follicles (100-130 pm) from ovaries of F1 hybrid (C57BL/6j x CBA/Ca) mice were cultured for 8 (preantral/antral follicles) and 12 (preovulatory follicles) days in increasing

concentrations of B[a]p (0 ng/mL [control] to 45 ng/mL). Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), aryl hydroxylase steroidogenic enzyme, cell-cycle, Temsirolimus solubility dmso and apoptotic genes were quantified. B[a]P exposure significantly (P<0.05) increased mRNA expression of Cyp1a1 in preantral/antral follicles and Cyp1b1, Box and Hsp90ab1 in preovulatory follicles. No significant effect Electron transport chain on mRNA expression of

StAR, Cyp11a1, aromatase, Cdk4, Cdk2, Ccnd2, CIAP2, and survivin was observed. In conclusion, this study suggests that B[a]P exposure significantly affects the phase I enzymes and cell death genes during preantral/antral and preovulatory growth, and thus highlight the AhR signaling and apoptotis pathways in delayed follicle growth and decreased viability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present study investigates the effects of Bisphenol A on the induction of dominant lethal mutation and male reproductive functions. The male rats were gavaged with BPA (10 mu g, and 5.0 mg/kg/bw) over a period of six days and control group with vehicle. Each male was cohabited with untreated females sequentially over the period of eight weeks. The mated females were sacrificed on 15th day of gestation. The results revealed a significant increase in dominant lethal mutation rate during fourth and sixth week of mating intervals at 5.0 mg/kg/bw dose of BPA. These findings demonstrate that mid-spermatids and spermatocytes are more sensitive to BPA exposure.

In addition, we show that base pair mutations in the vRNA promote

In addition, we show that base pair mutations in the vRNA promoter can lead to nontemplated dead-end mutations during replication to cRNA in vivo. Based on our observations, we propose C59 wnt cell line a new model for the de novo initiation of influenza virus replication.”
“Accurate characterization of the biochemical pathways of nitric oxide

(NO) is essential for investigations in the field of NO research. To analyze the different reaction pathways of enzymatic and non-enzymatic NO formation, determination of the source of NO is crucial. Measuring NO-related products in biological samples distinguishing between O-14 and (NO)-N-15 offers the opportunity to specifically analyze NO signaling in blood and tissue. The aim of this study was to establish a highly sensitive technique for the specific measurement of NO in an isotopologue-selective manner in biological samples. With the cavity leak-out spectroscopy set-up (CALOS) a differentiation between (NO)-N-14 and (NO)-N-15 is feasible. We describe here the employment of this method for measurements in biological samples. Certified gas mixtures of (NO)-N-14/N-2 and (NO)-N-15/N-2 were used to calibrate the system. click here (NO2-)-N-14 and (NO2-)-N-15 of aqueous and biological samples were reduced in a triiodide solution, and the NO released was detected via CALOS. Gas-phase chemiluminescence

detection (CLD) was used for evaluation. The correlation received for both methods for the detection of NO in the gas-phase was r = 0.999, p < 0.0001. Results obtained using aqueous and biological samples verified that CALOS enables NO measurements with high accuracy (detection limit for (NO2-)-N-14 0.3 pmol and 15 NO2- 0.5 pmol; correlation (NO)-N-14: p < 0.0001, r = 0.975, (NO)-N-15: p < 0.0001, r = 0.969). The CALOS assay represents an extension of NO measurements gmelinol in biological samples, allowing specific investigations of enzymatic and

non-enzymatic NO formation and metabolism in a variety of samples. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“To identify host proteins interacting with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) replication proteins in a genome-wide scale, we have used a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome microarray carrying 4,088 purified proteins. This approach led to the identification of 58 yeast proteins that interacted with p33 replication protein. The identified host proteins included protein chaperones, ubiquitin-associated proteins, translation factors, RNA-modifying enzymes, and other proteins with yet-unknown functions. We confirmed that 19 of the identified host proteins bound to p33 in vitro or in a split-ubiquitin-based two-hybrid assay. Further analysis of Cdc34p E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which is one of the host proteins interacting with p33, revealed that Cdc34p is a novel component of the purified viral replicase.

We conducted a randomized, controlled trial at 24 hospitals in Ja

We conducted a randomized, controlled trial at 24 hospitals in Japan to compare D2 lymphadenectomy alone

with D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND in patients undergoing gastrectomy for curable gastric cancer.

Methods: Between July 1995 and April 2001, 523 patients with curable stage T2b, T3, or T4 gastric cancer were randomly assigned during surgery to D2 lymphadenectomy alone (263 patients) or to D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND (260 patients). We did not permit any adjuvant therapy before the recurrence of cancer. The primary end point was overall survival.

Results: The rates of surgery-related complications among patients assigned to D2 lymphadenectomy alone and those assigned to D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND were 20.9% and 28.1%, respectively (P=0.07). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the frequencies of anastomotic leakage, pancreatic fistula, abdominal abscess, pneumonia, or death from PD0325901 in vitro any cause within 30 days after surgery (the rate of death was 0.8% in each group). The median operation time was 63 minutes longer and the median blood loss was 230 ml greater in the group assigned to D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND. The 5-year overall survival rate was 69.2% for the group assigned to D2 lymphadenectomy alone

and 70.3% for the group assigned to D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND; the hazard ratio for death was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.37; P=0.85). There were no significant differences in recurrence-free survival between the two groups; the hazard ratio for recurrence find more was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.42; P=0.56).

Conclusions: As compared with D2 lymphadenectomy alone, treatment with D2 lymphadenectomy plus PAND does not improve the survival

rate in curable gastric cancer. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00149279.).”
“Objectives. The present study of a representative sample Of Older ado Its quantified everyday physical activity (EPA) by having participants wear actigraphs. Our objectives were to examine whether poor health may partly explain why older adults become less physically active with advancing age and whether gender might moderate the Sclareol extent to which health status predicts EPA.

Methods. We performed multiple regression analyses on a sample of older, community-dwelling adults (aged 80-98 years, N = 198; women = 63.1%).

Results. The results imply that age-related declines in EPA may be partially accounted for by health (in men) and 1)), living arrangements (in women).

Discussion. We consider reasons why poorer health might erode EPA for men (but not women) and why living alone might erode EPA for women (but not men).”
“Background: Women make up more than 50% of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, female-initiated HIV prevention methods are urgently needed.

The expressions of 18 proteins related to stress response showed

The expressions of 18 proteins related to stress response showed increased trends, including several highly induced heat shock proteins and proteins related to cellular signaling pathways.”

There is a need for interferon-free treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate ABT-450, a potent HCV NS3 protease https://www.selleckchem.com/products/a-1155463.html inhibitor, combined with low-dose ritonavir (ABT-450/r), in addition to ABT-333, a nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor, and ribavirin, for the treatment of HCV infection.


We conducted a 12-week, phase 2a, open-label study involving patients

who had HCV genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. All patients received ABT-333 (400 mg twice daily) and ribavirin (1000 to 1200 mg per day) and one of two daily doses of ABT-450/r. Groups 1 and 2 included previously untreated patients; group 1 received 250 mg of ABT-450 and 100 mg of ritonavir, find more and group 2 received 150 mg and

100 mg, respectively. Group 3, which included patients who had had a null or partial response to previous therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin, received daily doses of 150 mg of ABT-450 and 100 mg of ritonavir. The primary end point was an undetectable level of HCV RNA from week 4 through week 12 (extended rapid virologic response).


A total of 17 of the 19 patients in group 1 (89%) and 11 of the 14 in group 2 (79%) had an extended rapid virologic response; a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment was achieved in 95% and 93% of the patients, respectively. In group 3, 10 of 17 patients (59%) had an extended rapid virologic response, and 8 (47%) had a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy;

6 patients had virologic breakthrough, and 3 had a relapse. Adverse events included abnormalities in liver-function tests, fatigue, nausea, headache, dizziness, buy DAPT insomnia, pruritus, rash, and vomiting.


This preliminary study suggests that 12 weeks of therapy with a combination of a protease inhibitor, a nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor, and ribavirin may be effective for treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection. (Funded by Abbott; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01306617.)”
“Objective: Posteversion carotid endarterectomy hypertension has been suggested to be associated with impaired baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), which has been identified as a factor of prognostic relevance in patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this prospective single-center nonrandomized study was to describe the changes of BRS in the early postoperative period after eversion carotid endarterectomy (E-CEA).

A number of groups of functionally related genes were also signif

A number of groups of functionally related genes were also significantly decreased in infected spleens. These included genes related to iron metabolism and homeostasis, pathways that have also been implicated in prion pathogenesis in the brain. These gene Adriamycin manufacturer expression alterations provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying prion disease pathogenesis and may serve as a pool of potential surrogate markers for the early detection and diagnosis of some prion diseases.”
“Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible

spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed see more deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence,

defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local

disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. Erythromycin This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas.”
“Household-level Canadian meat purchases from 2002 to 2008 and a Food Opinions Survey conducted in 2008 were used to explore consumer responses to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) at the national level in Canada. Consumption in terms of the number of unit purchases was analyzed with a random-effects negative binomial model. In this study, household heterogeneity in meat purchases was partially explained using data from a self-reported food opinions survey. Of special interest was the hypothesis that consumers responded consistently to BSE in a one-time survey and in actual meat purchase behavior spanning years. Regional differences appeared, with consumers in eastern Canada reacting most negatively to BSE.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been successfully

tested as neuroprotectant in brain injury models. The first large clinical trial with stroke patients, however, revealed negative results. Reasons are manifold and may include side-effects such as thrombotic complications or interactions with other medication, EPO concentration, penetration of the blood-brain-barrier and/or route of application. The latter is restricted to systemic Torin 1 application. Here we hypothesize that EPO is neuroprotective in a rat model of acute subdural hemorrhage (ASDH) and that direct cortical application is a feasible route of application in this injury type. The subdural hematoma was surgically evacuated and EPO was applied directly onto the surface of the brain. We injected NaCl, 200, 2000 or 20,000 IU EPO per rat i.v. at 15 min post-ASDH (400 mu l autologous venous blood) or NaCl, 0.02, 0.2 or 2 IU per rat onto the cortical surface after removal

of the subdurally infused blood t at 70 min post-ASDH. Arterial blood Selleck PSI-7977 pressure (MAP), blood chemistry, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain tissue oxygen (ptiO(2)) were assessed during the first hour and lesion volume at 2 days after ASDH. EPO 20,000 IU/rat (i.v.) elevated ICP significantly. EPO at 200 and 2000 IU reduced lesion volume from 38.2 +/- 0.6 mm(3) (NaCl-treated group) to 28.5 +/- 0.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.3 mm(3) (all p < 0.05 vs. NaCl). Cortical application of 0.02 IU EPO after ASDH evacuation reduced injury from 36.0 +/- 5.2 to 11.2 +/- 2.1 mm(3) (p = 0.007), whereas 0.2 IU had no effect (38.0 +/- Urease 9.0 mm(3)). The highest dose of both application routes (i.v. 20,000 IU; cortical 2 IU) enlarged the ASDH-induced damage significantly to 46.5 +/- 1.7 and 67.9 +/- 10.4 mm(3) (all p < 0.05 vs. NaCl). In order to test whether Tween-20, a solvent of EPO formulation ‘NeoRecomon (R) was responsible for adverse effects two groups were treated with NaCl or Tween-20 after the evacuation

of ASDH, but no difference in lesion volume was detected. In conclusion, EPO is neuroprotective in a model of ASDH in rats and was most efficacious at a very low dose in combination with subdural blood removal. High systemic and topically applied concentrations caused adverse effects on lesion size which were partially due to increased ICP. Thus, patients with traumatic ASDH could be treated with cortically applied EPO but with caution concerning concentration. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Some patients with severe asthma have recurrent asthma exacerbations associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation. Early studies suggest that inhibition of eosinophilic airway inflammation with mepolizumab-a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 5-is associated with a reduced risk of exacerbations.

“The actin cytoskeleton of plant syncytia (a multinucleate

“The actin cytoskeleton of plant syncytia (a multinucleate cell arising through fusion) is poorly known: to date, there have only been reports about F-actin organization in plant syncytia induced by parasitic nematodes. To broaden knowledge regarding this issue, we analyzed F-actin organization in special heterokaryotic Utricularia syncytia, which arise from maternal sporophytic tissues and endosperm haustoria. In contrast to plant syncytia induced by parasitic nematodes, Repotrectinib in vitro the syncytia

of Utricularia have an extensive F-actin network. Abundant F-actin cytoskeleton occurs both in the region where cell walls are digested and the protoplast of nutritive tissue cells fuse with the syncytium and also near a giant amoeboid in the shape nuclei in the central part of the syncytium. An explanation for the presence of an extensive F-actin network and especially F-actin bundles in the syncytia is probably that it is involved in selleck products the movement of nuclei

and other organelles and also the transport of nutrients in these physiological activity organs which are necessary for the development of embryos in these unique carnivorous plants. We observed that in Utricularia nutritive tissue cells, actin forms a randomly arranged network of F-actin, and later in syncytium, two patterns of F-actin were observed, one characteristic for nutritive cells and second-actin bundles-characteristic for haustoria and suspensors, thus syncytia inherit their F-actin patterns from their progenitors.”
“The severity of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in immunocompetent animals is highly strain dependent, ranging from avirulent to highly neuropathogenic. Here, we investigate the nature of this strain-specific restriction by analyzing the replication of avirulent (WNV-MAD78) and highly virulent (WNV-NY) strains in neurons, astrocytes, and microvascular endothelial cells,

which comprise the neurovascular unit within the central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that WNV-MAD78 replicated in and traversed brain microvascular endothelial cells as efficiently as WNV-NY. Likewise, similar levels of replication were detected in neurons. Thus, WNV-MAD78′s Dapagliflozin nonneuropathogenic phenotype is not due to an intrinsic inability to replicate in key target cells within the CNS. In contrast, replication of WNV-MAD78 was delayed and reduced compared to that of WNV-NY in astrocytes. The reduced susceptibility of astrocytes to WNV-MAD78 was due to a delay in viral genome replication and an interferon-independent reduction in cell-to-cell spread. Together, our data suggest that astrocytes regulate WNV spread within the CNS and therefore are an attractive target for ameliorating WNV-induced neuropathology.

In this report on our series of five patients, we describe bliste

In this report on our series of five patients, we describe blister-like aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and discuss important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects unique to them.

METHODS: In our retrospective review of 719 patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our service from 1998 to 2003, 181 (25.17%) patients harbored AComA aneurysms. Five (2.76%) patients (four women, one

man) had blister-like aneurysms that were recognized at the time of surgery.

RESULTS: Initial digital subtraction angiography was diagnostic in only one patient. A second digital subtraction angiogram was diagnostic in one patient but failed to reveal an aneurysm in the remaining three patients; these were eventually diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography. All aneurysms were clipped. At the time of surgery, IWP-2 datasheet the aneurysms arose from the horizontal portion of the AComA without any involvement of the branches of the anterior cerebral artery. All presented as blister-like aneurysms that were thin-walled and lacking a surgical neck. On dissection, two of the lesions ruptured. All lesions were treated with straight fenestrated clips through the A1-AComA junction, thus remodeling the AComA. No delayed rupture was noted at the time of the last follow-up evaluation. At the time of discharge, outcomes were good in two patients, fair Dactolisib ic50 in two, and poor in the remaining patient.

CONCLUSION: Blister-like aneurysms

constitute technically challenging lesions that may occur at the AComA. Computed tomographic angiography is valuable in diagnosis. Blister-like aneurysms should be suspected when digital subtraction

angiography findings are negative for subarachnoid hemorrhage.”
“There are two major strategies to genetically modify baculoviruses. One uses a bacmid-based system which replicates in Escherichia coli using a bacterial origin of replication. The other employs a transfer vector and viral DNA which are co-transfected into insect cells and utilise host enzyme-mediated homologous recombination. Putative recombinants Dichloromethane dehalogenase are then typically screened by plaque assay. The bacmid system is more convenient, but it requires a number of complex construction and isolation steps to obtain the correct bacmid genome. Generally, the transfer vector method is preferable when only a small number of genetic modifications are required.

In this study a rapid and reliable method was developed to extract baculovirus DNA for PCR analysis from cultured insect cells. Briefly, viral DNA was isolated in three steps: SDS lysis, chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. The method was tested for direct screening of recombinant viruses in plaque assays. Contrary to previous reports, baculovirus DNA was isolated directly from viral plaques and successfully analysed by PCR. No prior amplification of the virus by passage in tissue culture was necessary. The major advantage of this method was a reduction in assay times from a few days to a few hours.