denitrificans 4 Kingella denitrificans (2) S; SI

denitrificans 4 Kingella denitrificans (2) S; SI Neisseria bacilliformis Moraxella catarrhalis (1) S; SI M. nonliquefaciens Moraxella catarrhalis (2) S; SI M. osloensis Moraxella catarrhalis (1) S; SI Neisseria

elongata 4 Neisseria cinerea (1) S; SC N. cinerea 4 Neisseria elongata (1) S; SI Capnocytophaga canimorsus 4 Neisseria elongata (1) S; SI Capnocytophaga gingivalis 4 Neisseria elongata (1) S; SI Eikenella corrodens 4 Neisseria elongata (3) S; SC N. elongata 4 Neisseria elongata (4) S; SI N. weaveri Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1) S; SI Moraxella lacunata Neisseria sicca (1) S; SC LCZ696 chemical structure N. sicca 4 Neisseria sicca (2) S; SI N. subflava Neisseria elongata (1) S; SI N. zoodegmatis Suttonella indologenes (1) S; SI Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans 4 Not identified (1) N Aggregatibacter aphrophilus 4 Not identified (1) N Moraxella atlantae Not identified (1) N Moraxella canis Not identified (3) N Moraxella nonliquefaciens Not identified (2) N Moraxella osloensis Not identified (1) N Neisseria animaloris Not identified (3) N Neisseria elongata 4 Not identified (1) N Neisseria zoodegmatis Not identified (2) N Pasteurella bettyae Not identified (5) N Pasteurella multocida 6 Not identified (1) N Pasteurella stomatis 1 Final identification was assigned

using 16S rRNA gene identification as the reference method and if required with supplemental conventional tests. 2 Assignment to taxonomic level: S = species, G = genus, N = not identified. 3 Correctness of assignment: SC = correct at species level, SI = incorrect at species level, GC = correct at genus level, GI = incorrect at genus level, N = not identified. 4 Taxon included in the VITEK 2 NH database; Capnocytophaga spp. is included as genus. 5 Accepted as correct genus as Haemophilus aphrophilus was renamed as Aggregatibacter aphrophilus[22]. 6 Pasteurella multocida is included in the database of the VITEK 2 ID GNB card (bioMérieux). Discussion In this study, we analysed a large set of fastidious GNR Dynein clinical isolates covering diverse genera and species, which were obtained under routine conditions in a diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Molecular identification is vastly superior to conventional identification, both in

number of isolates assigned to correct taxon level and in accuracy (Table 2). A minority (6%) of the 158 isolates included in the study could not be assigned to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In contrast, 47% of the 158 isolates were not identified or misidentified by conventional Bcl-2 inhibitor phenotypic methods (Table 2). However, the performance of supplemental phenotypic tests was helpful to support the molecular identification in cases with low demarcation of two or more species due to highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences (Table 1). Although the overall correct assignment to taxa by conventional phenotypic methods was rather poor, some species are easily assigned to correct species level by conventional identification procedures (Table 3).

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