Despite the fact that L-carnitine has been shown apparently ineff

Despite the fact that L-carnitine has been shown apparently ineffective as a supplement, the research on L-carnitine has shifted to another category revolving around hypoxic stress and oxidative stress. Preliminary research has reported that L-carnitine supplementation Luminespib price has a

minimal effect on reducing the biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress [378]. While these findings are not promising, there is some recent data indicating that L-carnitine tartrate supplementation during intensified periods of training may help athletes tolerate training to a greater degree [379]. Consequently, there may be other advantages to L-carnitine supplementation than promoting fat metabolism. Phosphates The role of sodium and calcium phosphate on energy

metabolism and exercise performance learn more has been studied for decades [31]. Phosphate supplementation has also been suggested to affect energy expenditure, however, the research in this area is quite dated and no research on the effects on energy expenditure have been conducted. Some of this dated work includes the work by Kaciuba-Uscilko and colleagues [380] who reported that phosphate supplementation during a 4-week weight loss program increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory exchange ratio (suggesting greater carbohydrate utilization and caloric expenditure) during submaximal cycling exercise. In addition, Nazar and coworkers [381] reported that phosphate supplementation during an 8-week weight loss program increased RMR by 12-19% and prevented a normal decline in thyroid hormones. Although the rate of weight loss was similar in this trial, results suggest that phosphate supplementation

may influence metabolic rate possibly by affecting thyroid hormones. Despite these to dated trials, no further research has been conducted and thus the role of phosphates in regards to weight loss is inconclusive at best. Herbal Diuretics This is a new type of supplement recently marketed as a natural way Parvulin to promote weight loss. There is limited evidence that taraxacum officinale, verbena officinalis, lithospermum officinale, equisetum arvense, arctostaphylos uva-ursi, arctium lappa and silene saxifraga infusion may affect diuresis in animals [382, 383]. Two studies presented at the 2001 American College of Sports Medicine meeting [384, 385] indicated that although herbal diuretics promoted a small amount of dehydration (about 0.3% in one day), they were not nearly as effective as a INK 128 ic50 common diuretic drug (about 3.1% dehydration in one day). Consequently, although more research is needed, the potential value of herbal diuretics as a weight loss supplement appears limited. Performance Enhancement Supplements A number of nutritional supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance. Some of these nutrients have been described above.

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