For example, when phytoplasma was maintained by grafting

For example, when phytoplasma was maintained by grafting find more or tissue culture, its insect-transmissibility was easily lost and genes involved in the phytoplasma-insect interactions were mutated (Oshima et al., 2001; Ishii et al.,2009a, b). Based on this difference of modes of transmission between WX and PoiBI and on the genome plasticity of phytoplasmas, the membrane proteins of the two phytoplasmas may have evolved

in different ways. Further analyses of the diversity and functions of Imps are expected to reveal the evolution and biology of phytoplasmas. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (21248004) and the Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers of Japan Society for the Promotion Science, and also by the Program for Promotion of Basic Research Activities for Innovative Bioscience of Bio-oriented Technology

Research Advancement Institution. “
“Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major microorganisms responsible for the coloration of cheese surface, particularly in smear-ripened cheeses. This study investigated the occurrence of pigment synthesis among A. arilaitensis ABT-888 in vitro strains in several aspects covering (1) UV-Vis absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms of pigment extracts, (2) diversity of pigment production among strains, (3) influence of light on the production of pigment, and (4) kinetic of pigment synthesis. Based on absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, the 14 A. arilaitensis strains studied could be divided into two groups depending on their ability to produce carotenoids, carotenoid-producing, and nonpigmented strains. The methanolic extracts prepared from eight carotenoid-producing strains contained at least four carotenoids represented mainly as polar molecules. The diversity of pigment concentrations among these

strains was low, with carotenoids ranging from 0.40 to 0.76 mg L−1 culture and specific productivities from 0.14 to 0.25 mg pigment per g dry biomass, under light condition. When cultivating these A. arilaitensis strains under darkness condition, carotenoid biosynthesis was lower within a 0.17–0.25 mg L−1 range. The pigment production time curve of a representative colored A. arilaitensis the strain displayed a sigmoid shape which paralleled cell growth, probably indicating a growth-associated pigmentation. “
“A series of gemini quaternary ammonium salts (chlorides and bromides), with various hydrocarbon chain and spacer lengths, were tested. These compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were not mutagenic. The strongest antibacterial effect was observed for TMPG-10 Cl (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and TMPG-12 Br (against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and clinical ESBL(+) isolate 434) surfactants.

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