Formalin-induced pain specifically impaired contextual fear condi

Formalin-induced pain specifically impaired contextual fear conditioning but not auditory cue conditioning (Experiment 1A). Moreover, formalin pain only impaired contextual fear conditioning if it was initiated within 1 h of conditioning and did not have a significant effect if initiated 2,8 or 32h after (Experiments 1A and 1B). Experiment 2 showed that formalin pain initiated after a session of context pre-exposure reduced the ability of that pre-exposure to facilitate contextual fear when the rat was limited to a brief exposure to the context during conditioning. Similar impairments in context- Selleck AZD4547 but not CS-fear conditioning were also observed if the rats received an immediate

post-conditioning injection with CFA (Experiment 3). Finally, we confirmed that formalin and CFA injected s.c. on the back induced pain-indicative behaviours, hyperalgesia and allodynia with a similar timecourse to intraplantar injections (Experiment 4). These results suggest that persistent pain impairs learning in a hippocampus-dependent task, and may disrupt processes that encode experiences into long-term memory. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.”

mania requires hospitalization and prompt control of symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium valproate and olanzapine administered alone or in combination in patients suffering from acute mania. Patients (N = 30) suffering from acute mania selleck were divided into two equal groups. Group 7 patients click here were treated with sodium valproate 250 mg 3 times a day and Group 2 patients received

olanzapine 5 mg twice daily In both groups sodium valproate or olanzapine was given as add-on therapy at 3 weeks. The primary method of assessment was 50% or more improvement on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). The serum levels of valproic acid were also measured. Sodium valproate and olanzapine were effective in the treatment of acute mania with all patients demonstrating a 50% or more improvement on the YMRS. Sodium valproate-treated patients receiving olanzapine in the third week had a 15.3% decrease in the YMRS score and patients on olanzapine receiving sodium valproate had a 23.7% decrease. Patients who attained serum valproic acid levels of 100 mu g/mL showed improvement on the YMRS. The present study supports combination therapy in the management of acute mania and suggests that serum valproic acid levels of 100 mu g/mL are necessary for clinical response.”
“Traditionally, researchers have believed that axons are highly dependent on their cell bodies for long-term survival. However, recent studies point to the existence of axon-autonomous mechanism(s) that regulate rapid axon degeneration after axotomy. Here, we review the cellular and molecular events that underlie this process, termed Wallerian degeneration.

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