However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in
this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses.”
“Plasma membrane (PM) microdomains, including caveolae and other cholesterol-enriched subcompartments, are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including BAY 63-2521 endocytosis, attachment and signaling. We recently reported that brief incubation of human skin fibroblasts with the synthetic glycosphingolipid, D-erythro-octanoyl-lactosylceramide (C8-D-e-LacCer), stimulates endocytosis via caveolae and induces the appearance of micron-size microdomains on the PM. To further understand the effects of C8-D-e-LacCer Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor treatment on PM microdomains, we used a detergent-free method to isolate microdomain-enriched membranes from fibroblasts treated +/- C8-D-e-LacCer, and performed 2-DE and mass spectrophotometry to identify proteins that were altered in their distribution in microdomains. Several proteins were identified in the microdomain-enriched fractions, including lipid transfer proteins
and proteins related to the functions of small GTPases. One protein, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), was verified by Western blotting to occur this website in microdomain fractions and to increase in these fractions after D-e-LacCer treatment. Immunofluorescence revealed that ROCK2 exhibited an increased localization at or near the PM in C8-D-e-LacCer-treated cells. In contrast, ROCK2 distribution in microdomains was decreased by treatment of cells with C8-L-threo-lactosylceramide, a glycosphingolipid with non-natural stereochemistry. This study identifies new microdomain-associated proteins and
provides evidence that microdomains play a role in the regulation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway.”
“BACKGROUND: Radiosurgery as a potential treatment modality for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) has 60% to 90% obliteration rates.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether AVM angioarchitecture determines obliteration rate after radiosurgery.
METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of 139 patients with AVM who underwent radiosurgery. Multiple angioarchitectural characteristics were reviewed on conventional angiogram on the day of radiosurgery: enlargement of feeding arteries, flow-related or intranidal aneurysms, perinidal angiogenesis, arteriovenous transit time, nidus type, venous ectasia, focal pouches, venous rerouting, and presence of a pseudophlebitic pattern. The radiation plan was reviewed for nidus volume and eloquence of AVM location. A chart review was performed to determine clinical presentation and previous treatment.