In addition, we evaluated the effect of these four D3 dopamine receptor Bindarit ic50 selective compounds for their effect on a) spontaneous locomotion and b) coordination and agility using a rotarod apparatus. We also used a cylinder test to assess the effect Of L-dopa on spontaneous and independent use of each of the rat’s forelimbs in the presence or absence of test compound. The results of these studies suggest that substituted phenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds are potential pharmacotherapeutic agents for the treatment Of L-dopa-associated dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
nicotine withdrawal symptoms are of major motivational significance in contributing to relapse and continued tobacco use; thus, it is important to understand the molecular and receptor-mediated mechanisms that mediate affective withdrawal behaviors. Previous work using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) model has shown that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a negative affective state, and place aversion to previously neutral environmental stimuli represents a motivational component in the maintenance of drug use. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of genotype, sex, and age and to extend previous studies examining the role
of various nicotinic receptor subtypes in the see more development of nicotine withdrawal aversion using the CPA model. Mice were chronically treated with nicotine and conditioned for two days with various nicotinic receptor
antagonists. The major findings showed that mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHPE), but not hexamethonium or methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA), precipitated significant aversion in the CPA model. This pharmacological data support our previous knockout mouse data suggesting that nicotine CPA is mediated by central beta 2-containing nicotinic receptors, but not alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. Further, we show that sex and age are contributing factors to the development of nicotine CPA. Overall, the results of our study provide some insight Cetuximab clinical trial into pharmacological and behavioral factors involved in the development of an aversive motivational component associated with nicotine withdrawal. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, interacts with muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are also localized in astrocytes. We studied electrical effects elicited by nicotine in cultured astrocytes from the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus. Nicotine elicited different types of responses: sustained inward currents, decaying inward currents, and biphasic responses (an outward, followed by an inward current). Nicotine showed two opposite effects, an increase or a decrease of astrocyte membrane conductance, when voltage ramps were applied during sustained inward currents.