Conclusion: HFD induces elevated sUA levels by gain of WAT and in

Conclusion: HFD induces elevated sUA levels by gain of WAT and increase of XOD activity. Following SG, the reduction of WAT as the major source of XOD and the lowering of XOD activity are the basis for the decrease Selleckchem MG132 of sUA. (C) 2014 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated transcriptional and physiological

changes in relation to Fe transport and uptake under various conditions of iron (Fe)-deficiency and cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Responses to four such Fe/Cd conditions were evaluated, revealing that oxidative stress was generated in the presence of Cd, followed by a decrease in Fe and an increase in Cd concentrations GW4869 clinical trial in green gram (Vigna radiata) material, whereas supplementation with Fe had a protective effect against Cd toxicity. The involvement of enzymes in Fe-uptake for the formation of root-nodules

was largely reduced in the presence of Cd toxicity, a condition recovered by Fe-supplementation. Insufficient ferric chelate reducing activity in Fe-deprived roots in the presence of Cd was also largely improved by Fe supplementation. The expression of Fe2+ transporters (IRT1, IRT2, and IRT3), Fe(III) chelate reductase (FRO1-FRO8) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS1, PCS2 and PCS3) genes was up regulated for the first 5 days and decreased after 10 days in roots

in the presence of Cd toxicity, but was sustained with Fe-supplementation. Additionally, root biomass was fully recovered in plants in the presence of Fe during Cd toxicity. Our results suggest see more that Fe-status plays a significant role in ameliorating the damage in Fe transport for chelation and its uptake caused by Cd toxicity. This supports the hypothesis that leguminous plants, particularly those that are sensitive to Fe such as green gram, can cope to some extent with Cd toxicity by improving the uptake and transport of Fe.”
“The hypothesis that nestlings ale a significant driver of arbovirus transmission and amplification is based upon findings that suggest nestlings are highly susceptible to being fed upon by vector mosquitoes and to viral infection and replication. Several previous studies have suggested that nestlings are preferentially fed upon relative to adults in the nest. and other studies have reported a preference for adults over nestlings We directly tested the feeding preference of nestling and adult birds in a natural setting, introducing mosquitoes into nesting boxes containing eastern bluebirds (Stalin stalls). collecting blood-fed mosquitoes.

These data can be used to

These data can be used to Taselisib chemical structure develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised,

the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills, thereby advancing the agenda of theoretically based instruction design in health care simulation. Discuss ideas arising from the article at discuss’.”
“Acute liver failure is a potentially devastating clinical syndrome that, without liver transplantation (Tx), is associated with high mortality. Rapid deterioration in clinical status and a shortage of deceased human organs prohibits liver Tx in many patients. Bridging to liver Tx has been attempted by various approaches, for

example, bioartificial liver support, extracorporeal pig liver perfusion, and hepatocyte Tx, but none of these approaches has convincingly improved patient survival. The orthotopic Tx of a genetically engineered pig liver could theoretically provide successful bridging. Immediate availability, perfect selleckchem metabolic condition, adequate size-match and hepatocyte mass, and freedom from potentially pathogenic microorganisms could be assured. The advantages and disadvantages of bridging by pig liver Tx compared with other approaches are discussed. The selection of patients for an initial clinical trial of pig liver Tx would be similar to BKM120 mouse that of various prior trials in patients experiencing rapid and severe deterioration in liver function. The ability to give truly informed consent for a pig bridging procedure at the time of listing for liver

Tx renders the patient with acute-on-chronic liver failure or primary allograft failure is a preferable candidate for this procedure than a patient who is admitted urgently with acute (fulminant) liver failure in whom consent may not be possible. Although several barriers to successful pig organ xenoTx remain, for example, coagulation dysfunction between pig and primate, if these can be resolved by further genetic engineering of the organ-source pigs, a pig liver may prove life saving to patients dying rapidly of liver failure.”
“Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. WHO classified H. pylori as a group 1 carcinogen in 1994. Impatiens balsamina L. has been used as indigenous medicine in Asia for the treatment of rheumatism, fractures and fingernail inflammation. In this study, we isolated anti-H. pylori compounds from this plant and investigated their anti-and bactericidal activity. Compounds of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeONQ) and stigmasta-7,22-diene-3 beta-ol (spinasterol) were isolated from the pods and roots/stems/leaves of I. balsamina L., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for MeONQ were in the ranges of 0.156-0.625 and 0.313-0.

From approximate to 7 to 21% of the activated (i e , dividing) DO

From approximate to 7 to 21% of the activated (i.e., dividing) DO11.10 Teffs that were recovered from the lungs, lung-draining lymph nodes, or spleens of the OVA-DC10 recipients had differentiated into CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) Tregs, whereas no

CFSE-positive Tregs were recovered from the HDM-DC10-treated animals. These data indicate that DC10 treatments induce tolerance at least in part by inducing Teffs to differentiate into CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) Tregs. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 185: 5003-5010.”
“Parkinson disease is characterized cytopathologically by the deposition in the midbrain of aggregates composed primarily of the presynaptic neuronal protein a-synuclein (AS). Neurotoxicity is currently attributed to oligomeric microaggregates subjected to oxidative modification and promoting mitochondrial and proteasomal dysfunction. Unphysiological binding to membranes of these and other organelles is presumably involved. In this study, INCB028050 we performed a systematic determination of the influence of charge, phase, curvature, defects, and lipid unsaturation on AS binding to model membranes using a new sensitive solvatochromic fluorescent probe. The interaction of AS with vesicular membranes is fast and reversible. The protein dissociates from neutral membranes upon thermal transition to the liquid disordered phase and transfers to vesicles with higher affinity. The binding

of AS to neutral and negatively charged membranes occurs by apparently different mechanisms. Interaction with neutral bilayers requires the presence of membrane defects; binding increases with membrane curvature and rigidity and decreases in the presence of cholesterol. The association with negatively charged membranes is much stronger and much less Emricasan in vitro sensitive to membrane curvature, phase, and cholesterol content. The presence of unsaturated lipids increases binding in all cases. These findings provide insight into the relation between membrane physical properties and AS binding affinity and dynamics that presumably define protein localization in vivo and, thereby, the role of AS in the physiopathology

of Parkinson disease.”
“The aim of this study was to report the 10-year experience of our Institution in cryoablation of supraventricular tachycardia due to a right accessory pathway (AP).\n\nSeventy-one cryoablations of right AP were performed between July 2002 and October 2011 in our Institution in 66 patients (mean age 12 3 years, 56 males). Acute procedural success rate was 97: 80 in patients with concealed AP and 100 in those with manifest AP (P 0.05). Acute procedural success rate was not related to institutional experience. No permanent complication occurred. Sixteen patients had recurrences during the follow-up (18.6 6.6 months; range 3111), 13 within the first month of follow-up, 2 within the 6 months of follow-up, and 1 within 12 months of follow-up.

Main outcome measures: Odds ratios for bigger than 21-day

Main outcome measures: Odds ratios for bigger than 21-day

length of stay, 28-day unplanned readmission, 30-day mortality and 90-day mortality, and hazard ratios A-1155463 research buy (HRs) for 5-year absolute and conditional survival. Results: Oesophagectomy (908 patients) and gastrectomy (1621 patients) were undertaken in 42 and 84 hospitals, respectively, between 2001 and 2008. Median annual hospital volume ranged from 2 to 4 for oesophagectomies and ranged from 2 to 3 for gastrectomies. Controlling for known confounders, no associations between hospital volume and bigger than 21-day length of stay and 28-day unplanned readmission were found. Overall 30-day mortality was 4.1% and 4.4% for oesophagectomy and gastrectomy, respectively. Five-year absolute survival was significantly better for patients who underwent oesophagectomy in higher-volume hospitals (adjusted HR for lower-volume hospitals, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.10-1.49]; P = 0.002) and for those with localised gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy in higher-volume hospitals (adjusted HR for lower-volume BMS-754807 purchase hospitals, 1.83 [95% Cl, 1.28-2.61]; P = 0.001). Conclusions: These data support initial surgery for oesophagogastric cancer in higher-volume

“Purpose: The present article aims to analyze the available clinical data on the survival and success rate of dental zirconia implants (ZI). Material and Method: Studies (2006-2011) listed in the bibliography were obtained by using the key words zirconia, zirconium, implants, dental, clinical and combinations of these in different databases and on the internet. These articles served as a basis for the article. Results: A total of 17 clinical studies were found, involving 1,675 implants and 1,274 patients. In 16 studies, one-piece implant systems were investigated. Copanlisib mouse The survival rates for ZI range from 74-98% after 12-56months, with success rates between 79.6-91.6% 6-12months after prosthetic restoration. However, the design of most of the studies show considerable shortcomings, and only low evidence level. Conclusion: The small number of studies

and the limited period of observation permit only a qualified statement on the clinical success of ZI. The results available to date indicate that ZI are inferior to titanium implants (TI) with regard to survival and success rates. Well-conducted long-term studies are urgently needed to permit a meaningful assessment of the survival or success rates of ZI and a statement concerning their application as an alternative to TI.”
“The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has led to emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectins WSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A. aegypti organophosphate-susceptible larvae (Rockefeller L-4).

“Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a neonatal-lethal genetic dise

“Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a neonatal-lethal genetic disease that affects all tissues, and features neuropathology that involves primary developmental defects as well as neurodegeneration. Neuropathological changes include abnormal neuronal migration affecting the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and inferior olivary complex, abnormal Purkinje cell arborisation, demyelination and post-developmental neuronal Autophagy Compound Library degeneration. ZS is caused by mutations

in peroxisome biogenesis, or PEX, genes which lead to defective peroxisome biogenesis and the resultant loss of peroxisomal metabolic function. The molecular and cellular bases of ZS neuropathology are still not completely understood. Attempts to explain the neuropathogenesis have implicated peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction, and more specifically the loss of peroxisomal products, such as plasmalogens and docosahexaenoic, and the accumulation of peroxisomal substrates, such as very-long-chain-fatty acids. In this review, consideration is also given to recent findings that implicate other candidate check details pathogenetic factors, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, aberrant cell signalling, and inflammation -

factors that have also been identified as important in the pathogenesis of other neurological diseases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“2,3,7,8-Tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one

of the most toxic dioxins belonging to the wide family of Endocrine Disruptors (EDs), environmental chemicals that adversely interfere with endocrine processes and upset normal function of some target systems. It has been hypothesized that EDs enter cellular cytosol, bind to the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)and form a heterodimer with the AhR nuclear translocator; this complex binds xenobiotic responsive elements that drive activation of the so-called “Ah gene battery” Spermatogenesis Related Factor-2 (SRF-2) is one of the most recently cloned genes involved in germ cell division and differentiation. whose expression seems to be affected by treatment with Selleckchem Compound Library TCDD. With the aim to try to clarify the underlying mechanism of TCDD and to investigate if SRF-2 gene represents a good biomarker for ED exposure, we used Xenopus laevis as an animal model, considered to be almost insensitive toward TCDD effects. In this Study we reported the partial cloning of SRF-2 cDNA in X. laevis: we then evaluated the SRF-2 expression in embryos exposed to TCDD 0.62 mu M by real-time PCR. We also analyzed SRF-2 expression in several adult control tissues and in testis after perilymphatic injection of a single dose of 10 mu g/kg body weight. Although SRF-2 expression does not seem to be affected by the treatment, exposed embryos died within 15 days.

Results Ten studies including 16,869 participants were identi

\n\nResults Ten studies including 16,869 participants were identified. In patients with mild-to-moderate CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <= 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), fibrates improved lipid profiles (lowered total cholesterol [-0.32 mmol/l, p = 0.05] and triglyceride levels [-0.56 mmol/l, p = 0.03] but not low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [-0.01 mmol/l, p = 0.83]; increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [0.06 PF-04929113 manufacturer mmol/l, p = 0.001]). In people with diabetes, fibrates reduced the risk of albuminuria progression (relative risk

[RR]: 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.98; p = 0.02). Serum creatinine was elevated by fibrate therapy (33 mu mol/l, p < 0.001), calculated GFR was reduced (-2.67 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.01) but there was no detectable effect on the risk of end-stage kidney disease (RR: 0.85; 95%

CI: 0.49 to 1.49; p = 0.575). In patients with eGFR of 30 to 59.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), fibrates reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.89; p = 0.004) and cardiovascular death (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.96; p = 0.03) but not all-cause mortality. There were no clear selleck screening library safety concerns specific to people with CKD but available data were limited.\n\nConclusions Fibrates improve lipid profiles and prevent cardiovascular events in people with CKD. They reduce albuminuria and reversibly increase serum creatinine but the effects on major kidney outcomes remain unknown. These results suggest that fibrates have a place in reducing cardiovascular risk in people with mild-to-moderate CKD. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:2061-71) (C) 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills

in the humans and experimental animals. Due to the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of pelargonidin (PG), this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic oral PG on alleviating learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocin-diabetic Rigosertib supplier rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, PG-treated control and PG (single-and/or multiple-dose)-treated diabetic groups. PG was administered p.o. once at a dose of 10 mg/kg and/or multiple doses on alternate days for 8 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin (STZ) was injected IP in a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For the evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of study using a passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, spatial memory was assessed in a Y-maze task. It was found that the alternation score of the diabetic rats was lower than the control (p < 0.

(C) 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics P

(C) 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.”
“Today, professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease, using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise

that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st-century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession Blasticidin S order of nursing forward. The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 20th century. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in

caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing selleckchem during the 20th and early 21st centuries.”
“Specific targeting of tumors by combined delivery of drugs and of imaging agents represents an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-targeted SCH727965 liposomes may enhance drug delivery and allow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse model of NCAM-positive Kaposi’s sarcoma. NCAM-binding peptide-coated liposomes loaded with both doxorubicin and a lipophilic gadolinium (Gd) derivative were generated. NCAM-targeted liposomes induced an enhanced in vitro doxorubicin internalization within Kaposi’s cells as detected by MRI

with respect to untargeted polyethylene glycol liposomes. Internalization resulted in enhanced apoptosis. In vivo weekly administration of NCAM-targeted liposomes containing 5 mg/kg doxorubicin for 4 consecutive weeks induced a significant reduction of tumor mass and vascularization and enhanced cell necrosis and apoptosis with respect to untargeted liposomes. These effects were associated with an enhanced concentration of doxorubicin within the tumor and a reduced systemic toxicity of doxorubicin. By electron microscopy, NCAM-targeted liposomes were detected mainly within tumor cells whereas the untargeted liposomes were mainly accumulated in the extracellular space. Gd-labeled liposomes allowed the MRI visualization of drug delivery in the tumor region. The intensity of MRI signal was partially hampered by the “quenching” of the attainable relaxation enhancement on endosomal entrapment of the Gd-labeled liposomes. In conclusion, targeting NCAM may be a suitable strategy for specific drug delivery and imaging by liposomes in NCAM-expressing tumors.

The range of motion, Visual Analog Score (VAS) for pain, American

The range of motion, Visual Analog Score (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons’ Form (ASES), Constant-Murley, University

of California-Los Angles scoring system (UCLA) score, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) for function evaluation was all recorded at the latest follow-up. The results from patients with complications were evaluated according to the indices listed above and compared with those patients without any complications.\n\nResults There were 17 patients LBH589 mw with complications, an 18.5% complication rate. Among them, the forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation were 139.1 degrees +/- 24.3 degrees, 24.1 degrees +/- 19.6 degrees, and up to T10 level on average. The mean VAS score was 1.0 +/- 1.1, the ASES score was 82.9 +/- 13.8, the Constant 82.1 +/- 11.8, the UCLA 28.5 +/- 4.1 and the mean SST 9.5

on average. There was no significant difference of complication rate among different age, sex, and injured side, fresh or delayed fracture, combined with other injury or not groups. Compared with the group without complications, patients with complications showed significantly less external rotation and lower Constant-Murley and UCLA functional scores (P <0.05). A significant difference in results was seen between patients with complications and those without complications.\n\nConclusion The indication control LY333531 concentration and appropriate surgical technique were important while performing the locking plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures. Chin Med J 2010;123(19):2671-2675″
“Background: Norcantharidin, the demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from a traditional Chinese medicine, Mylabris, has been used in the treatment of anti-cancer effects. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process are generally unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of NCTD-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.\n\nMethods: The

cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay for cellular viability and by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species production was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. The role of caspase activities were assayed Galardin datasheet using caspase apoptosis detection kit. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the level of Cyto C, Bcl 2, Bax, Bid, caspase 3, 9, 8 and PARP expression\n\nResults: After treatment with NCTD, a decrease in the viability of HepG2 cells and increase in apoptosis were observed. NCTD-induced apoptosis was accompanied by an increase in ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c(cyto-c) from the mitochondria to the cytosol and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 levels with concurrent up-regulation in pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels. However, another pro-apoptotic molecule, Bid, showed no change in such same treatment. NCTD-increased activity of caspase 9, caspase 3 and the subsequent cleavage caspase substrate PARP were also observed.

In addition we also analyzed drusen capped with retinal pigment e

In addition we also analyzed drusen capped with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), AZD3965 RPE, and neural retina from human donors age 72-95 yr. The

lowest 7KCh levels were found in monkey lens ( smaller than 0.5-3.5 pmol 7KCh per nmol Ch), the second highest in MNR (1-15 pmol/nmol), and the highest in MPEC (1 to bigger than 60 pmol/nmol). Despite individual variability all three tissues demonstrated a strong age-related increase. In older human donors 7KCh levels were significantly higher. The levels in human neural retina ranged from 8 to 20 pmol/nmol, similar to the oldest monkeys, but 7-KCh levels in RPE ranged from 200 to 17,000 pmol/nmol, Fer-1 manufacturer and in RPE-capped drusen from 200 to 2000 pmol/nmol, levels that would be lethal in most cultured cell systems. Most of the 7KCh is sequestered and not readily available to the surrounding tissue, based on published histochemical evidence that extracellular cholesterol (Ch) and cholesteryl fatty acid esters (CEs) are highly concentrated in Bruch’s membrane and drusen. However, adjacent tissues, especially RPE but also choriocapillaris endothelium, could

be chronically inflamed and in peril of receiving a lethal exposure. Implications for initiation and progression of age-related macular degeneration are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We previously showed that phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) mediates a robust PKC-dependent sensitization and desensitization of the highly homologous human Gs protein and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-linked D1 (hD1R) and D5 (hD5R) dopaminergic receptors,

respectively. Here, we demonstrate using forskolin-mediated AC stimulation that PMA-mediated hD1R sensitization and hD5R desensitization is BIIB057 not associated with changes in AC activity. We next employed a series of chimeric hD1R and hD5R to delineate the underlying structural determinants dictating the subtype-specific regulation of human D1-like receptors by PMA. We first used chimeric receptors in which the whole terminal region (TR) spanning from the extracellular face of transmembrane domain 6 to the end of cytoplasmic tail (CT) or CT alone were exchanged between hD1R and hD5R. CT and TR swaps lead to chimeric hD1R and hD5R retaining PMA-induced sensitization and desensitization of wild type parent receptors. In striking contrast, hD1R sensitization and hD5R desensitization mediated by PMA are correspondingly switched to PMA-induced receptor desensitization and sensitization following the IL3 swap between hD1R and hD5R. Cell treatment with the PKC blocker, Go6983, inhibits PMA-induced regulation of these chimeric receptors in a similar fashion to wild type receptors.

“This paper presents an integrated agent-based model of re

“This paper presents an integrated agent-based model of recreational fishing behavior within a reef ecosystem as a platform for the evaluation of recreational fishing management strategies. Angler behavior is described using econometrically estimated site choice models, with site choice among anglers driven by site attributes and angler characteristics. The biophysical model represents the marine reef environment as a system

with different trophic levels identifying algal and coral growth as well as two types of fish (piscivores and herbivores). Wnt tumor Ecosystem dynamics are driven by interactions within the trophic levels and interaction between fish populations and fishing activities. The model is used to simulate recreational fishing activities and their interactions with the environment. Recreational fishing sites from the Ningaloo Marine Park, an iconic coral reef system in Western Australia, are used as a case study. A set of management

Selleck Citarinostat strategies, including “business-as-usual” and different site closure durations, are assessed for two different levels of fishing pressures. The results show that not only the Belinostat inhibitor effectiveness but

also the distribution of management impacts across space and over time can be very different from what one would expect without the benefit of integrated modeling. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Magnesium alloys have been intensively studied as biodegradable implant materials, as their mechanical properties render them promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present work, porous Mg-4 wt% Zn and Mg-6 wt% Zn scaffolds were prepared using a powder metallurgy process. The effects of the porosity and Zn content on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds were studied. The above mentioned fabrication process involved sequential stages of mixing and compression of Mg and Zn powders with carbamide materials as space-holder particles followed by sintering the green compacts at different temperatures below the melting point of Mg. The results indicate that the porous Mg-Zn specimens with a porosity and pore size of approximately 21-36% and 150-400 mu m, respectively, could have enhanced mechanical properties comparable with those of cancellous bone.