It is also seen that the theory converges to physically correct solutions in the cases of infinite and zero shear stiffness; while the first corresponds the case of Euler Bernoulli
sandwich beam, the second corresponds the case where the sandwich effect is lost and the bending is carried out purely by the bending of the faces. The paper also gives explicit expression for the couple stress stiffness in terms of unit cell dimensions and materials. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This research examines the applicability Birinapant chemical structure of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN-2238.html facilities. Three aspects of supportive assistance behavior were evaluated: home visits, visits to the institution, and the relationship with the caregiving staff. Findings indicated that subjective norms held by siblings and parents predicted the frequency of home visits. Perceived behavioral control predicted the frequency of contact between siblings and staff. Thus, the applicability of the theory with respect to supportive behavior by the parents and siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability was partly substantiated by our findings. The findings are discussed with respect to the applicability
of Theory of Planned Behavior.”
“Reinforcement is the process by which increased reproductive isolation between incipient species
evolves due to selection against maladaptive BEZ235 concentration hybrids or costly hybrid mating. Reinforcement is predicted to create a pattern of greater prezygotic reproductive isolation in regions where the two species co-occur, sympatry, than in allopatry. Although most research on reinforcement focuses on understanding the evolutionary forces acting in sympatry, here we consider what prevents the alleles conferring greater reproductive isolation from spreading into allopatry. We investigate flower color divergence in the wildflower Phlox drummondii, which is caused by reinforcement in the regions sympatric with its congener Phlox cuspidata. Specifically, we performed common garden field experiments and pollinator observations to estimate selection acting on flower color variation in allopatry. We combine our estimates of maternal and paternal fitness using simulations and predict how flower color alleles migrating from sympatry will evolve in allopatry. Our results suggest that strong pollinator preference for the ancestral flower color in allopatry can maintain divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations.”
“The separation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a powerful anthropogenic greenhouse gas, was investigated using membrane technology. Permeation measurements in commercial polysulfone (PSf) hollow fiber membranes were performed using single gases (i.e.