ND: non determined. Molecular evolution of pk1 and Alpelisib nmr pk2genes The GC content of wVulC pk1 alleles (mean ± SE, 33.9 ± 0.3%) is similar to that of the whole genome assembly (34.5%) whereas the GC content of wVulC pk2 alleles (ANK40a/b: 36.8%, ANK48: 36.3%) is significantly greater. Similar results were obtained considering pk1 and pk2 genes of all Wolbachia genomes (pk1: 34.0 ± 0.1%; pk2: 37.2 ± 0.2%; genomes: 34.8 ± 0.3%) (paired t-test, t = 13.79, df = 15, p = 6.3e-10) ( Additional file 1: Table S2). Interestingly, the GC content of
pk1 and pk2 sequences is significantly different from the whole prophage sequences, which comprise an intermediate GC content of 35.8 ± 0.2% (paired t-tests; prophage vs. pk1, t = 12.60, df = 11, p = 7.0e-8; prophage vs. pk2, t = 3.85, df = 8, p = 4.9e-3) ( Additional file 1: Table S2). ANK motif-encoding sequence analysis indicated no recombination and Ka/Ks (the ratio of the rate of non-synonymous substitutions (Ka) to the rate of synonymous substitutions
(Ks)) 4EGI-1 supplier of all positions was 0.211 ± 0.009 for Pk1 and 0.245 ± 0.020 for Pk2. Purifying selection is thus acting on these domain-encoding sequences and no sites are under positive selection. All translated pk1 full-length sequences are predicted to harbour two transmembrane domains in their C-terminal region but a variable number of ANK motifs ranging from 8 to 10 ( Additional file 1: Figure S3). In wVulC, ANK46a/b and ANK60a/b sequences (pk1b type) are acetylcholine selleck chemical shorter in their N-terminal region than the other Pk1 translated sequences (42 and 62 amino acids, respectively). One indel at position 117 of the DNA sequence of wVulC ANK46a/b is responsible for a frame shift, which splits the
gene into two ORFs homologous to the full-length pk1 of other strains. ANK60a/b sequences are shortened by a transposase gene insertion in the 5′ region. In contrast, pk2 translated sequences are more conserved (84.5 to 100% identity) among Wolbachia strains than pk1. All Pk2 amino acid sequences harbour 3 ANK motifs except in the wAu strain (host: D. simulans) in which a premature stop codon disrupts the third motif ( Additional file 1: Figure S3). Comparative analysis of pk1 and pk2 mRNA expression in CI and feminizing Wolbachia strains RT-PCR using allele-specific primers was performed to examine the expression patterns of pk1 and pk2 mRNA in adult gonads of isopods harbouring CI-inducing or feminizing Wolbachia strains (Figure 2). Evidence of expression was observed for all copies of pk1 and pk2 genes except for one allele of the pk2b type (Figure 2A).