ND: non determined Molecular evolution of pk1 and

ND: non determined. Molecular evolution of pk1 and Alpelisib nmr pk2genes The GC content of wVulC pk1 alleles (mean ± SE, 33.9 ± 0.3%) is similar to that of the whole genome assembly (34.5%) whereas the GC content of wVulC pk2 alleles (ANK40a/b: 36.8%, ANK48: 36.3%) is significantly greater. Similar results were obtained considering pk1 and pk2 genes of all Wolbachia genomes (pk1: 34.0 ± 0.1%; pk2: 37.2 ± 0.2%; genomes: 34.8 ± 0.3%) (paired t-test, t = 13.79, df = 15, p = 6.3e-10) ( Additional file 1: Table S2). Interestingly, the GC content of

pk1 and pk2 sequences is significantly different from the whole prophage sequences, which comprise an intermediate GC content of 35.8 ± 0.2% (paired t-tests; prophage vs. pk1, t = 12.60, df = 11, p = 7.0e-8; prophage vs. pk2, t = 3.85, df = 8, p = 4.9e-3) ( Additional file 1: Table S2). ANK motif-encoding sequence analysis indicated no recombination and Ka/Ks (the ratio of the rate of non-synonymous substitutions (Ka) to the rate of synonymous substitutions

(Ks)) 4EGI-1 supplier of all positions was 0.211 ± 0.009 for Pk1 and 0.245 ± 0.020 for Pk2. Purifying selection is thus acting on these domain-encoding sequences and no sites are under positive selection. All translated pk1 full-length sequences are predicted to harbour two transmembrane domains in their C-terminal region but a variable number of ANK motifs ranging from 8 to 10 ( Additional file 1: Figure S3). In wVulC, ANK46a/b and ANK60a/b sequences (pk1b type) are acetylcholine selleck chemical shorter in their N-terminal region than the other Pk1 translated sequences (42 and 62 amino acids, respectively). One indel at position 117 of the DNA sequence of wVulC ANK46a/b is responsible for a frame shift, which splits the

gene into two ORFs homologous to the full-length pk1 of other strains. ANK60a/b sequences are shortened by a transposase gene insertion in the 5′ region. In contrast, pk2 translated sequences are more conserved (84.5 to 100% identity) among Wolbachia strains than pk1. All Pk2 amino acid sequences harbour 3 ANK motifs except in the wAu strain (host: D. simulans) in which a premature stop codon disrupts the third motif ( Additional file 1: Figure S3). Comparative analysis of pk1 and pk2 mRNA expression in CI and feminizing Wolbachia strains RT-PCR using allele-specific primers was performed to examine the expression patterns of pk1 and pk2 mRNA in adult gonads of isopods harbouring CI-inducing or feminizing Wolbachia strains (Figure 2). Evidence of expression was observed for all copies of pk1 and pk2 genes except for one allele of the pk2b type (Figure 2A).

Comments are closed.