Phylotemporal analysis using

a Bayesian Markov chain Mont

Phylotemporal analysis using

a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which placed recombination events within the evolutionary reconstruction of VP1, showed a close relationship with VP1 lineage expansion, with defined recombination events that correlated with their epidemiological periodicity. Whether recombination events contribute directly to changes in transmissibility that drive epidemic behavior or occur stochastically during periodic population bottlenecks buy PRT062607 is an unresolved issue vital to future understanding of enterovirus molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.”
“The risk of improbable, uncertain, but grave potential dangers poses unique adaptive challenges. We argue that to manage such risks, a special motivational system evolved, which we term the security motivation system. Review of work across a range of species indicates that this system is designed to detect subtle indicators of potential threat, to probe the environment for further information about these possible dangers, and to motivate engagement in precautionary behaviors,

which also serves to terminate security motivation. We advance a neurobiological-circuit model of the security motivation system, which consists of a cascade of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical loops with brainstem-mediated PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 mouse negative feedback. We also detail the broader physiological network involved, including regulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, with emphasis on vagal regulation of cardiac output, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Finally, we this website propose that some kinds of psychopathology stem from dysfunction of the security motivation system. In particular, obsessive compulsive disorder may result from the failure of a mechanism by which engagement in precautionary

behavior normally terminates activation of the system. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The development of HIV drugs is an expensive and a lengthy process. In this study, we used drug repositioning, a process whereby a drug approved to treat one condition is used to treat a different condition, to identify clinically approved drugs that have anti-HIV activity. The data presented here show that a combination of two clinically approved drugs, decitabine and gemcitabine, reduced HIV infectivity by 73% at concentrations that had minimal antiviral activity when used individually. Decreased infectivity coincided with a significant increase in mutation frequency and a shift in the HIV mutation spectrum. These results indicate that an increased mutational load is the primary antiviral mechanism for inhibiting the generation of infectious progeny virus from provirus. Similar results were seen when decitabine was used in combination with another ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor.

053, p = 01), and total fat mass (beta = 0 126 +/- 0 053, p = 0

053, p = .01), and total fat mass (beta = 0.126 +/- 0.053, p = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, site, smoking,

anti-inflammatory medications, comorbidity index, health-related BMS-777607 quality of life, and physical function. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for grip strength, but only waist circumference remained associated with inflammation after adjusting for total lean mass. There were no significant interactions between adiposity and muscle mass or strength for either factor.

Greater total and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of an inflammatory factor related to CRP, IL-1ra, and IL-6 in older adults, which may provide a clinically useful measure of inflammation in this population.”
“Pharmacological treatment is usually indicated in moderate to severe tics in psychosocial and/or functional impairment. Neuroleptics with D2 antagonistic activity remain the cornerstone of anti-tic therapy. Lack of randomized controlled clinical trials

base therapeutic decisions mainly on clinical expertise and common sense. Recently, aripiprazole has emerged as the neuroleptic with the most advantageous efficacy/side effect ratio for treating tics. Yet, in non-responders to aripiprazole, many neuroleptic and non-neuroleptic drugs, including botulinum toxin injections, are available and often successful. Apart from conducting methodologically sound trials (which includes sufficiently long observation periods), future efforts in the field should test the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy with drugs or of multi-drug therapy as well as the development of biomarkers click here (endophenotypes) to monitor Cyclosporin A and even predict treatment response. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The frequency of true and false autobiographical memories and associated states of conscious awareness, i.e., conscious recollection and simply knowing, as well as the respective roles of affective

and cognitive processes in autobiographical memory construction, were assessed in eight patients with schizophrenia and eight control participants. A diary study methodology was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure. The results showed a higher frequency of Know responses associated with the retrieval of both true and false memories in patients than in control participants. Whereas control participants rated higher at retrieval than at encoding the distinctiveness and personal importance of events, as well as the extent to which events furthered current personal plans, patients exhibited an opposite pattern of ratings, with ratings being lower at retrieval than at encoding. These preliminary results show a high frequency of simply knowing associated with the retrieval of true and false autobiographical memories in patients with schizophrenia and provide evidence for the interest of the diary study methodology for studying autobiographical memory in schizophrenia. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

63 +/- 0 15 vs 0 66 +/- 0 10; P = 36) At 4 weeks of follow-up,

63 +/- 0.15 vs 0.66 +/- 0.10; P = .36). At 4 weeks of follow-up, ABI was

significantly increased in group A (1.05 +/- 0.15; P = .0004) but remained unchanged in group B (0.62 +/- 0.1). WBC counts of the two groups were comparable at baseline (group A: 7.6 +/- 2.26 x 10(6)/mL and group B: 7.8 +/- 2.02 X 10(6)/mL, P = .81). In group A, the leukocyte count significantly decreased after angioplasty from 7.6 +/- 2.26 to 6.89 +/- 1.35 x 10(6)/mL(P = .03). For group B, WBC count did not differ significantly compared with baseline (7.76 +/- 2.64 X 10(6)/mL; P = .94). No effects were observed on hs-CRP or fibrinogen from endovascular therapy.

Conclusion: Endovascular revascularization

with reestablishment of peripheral arterial perfusion Selleck Fedratinib improves FMD and reduces WBC count in patients with claudication. Revascularization may therefore have clinical implications beyond relief of symptoms, for example, reducing oxidative stress caused by repeated muscle ischemia or increased shear stress due to improved ambulatory activity. (J Vasc Surg 2008;48:1211-6.)”
“The human potassium-chloride co-transporter 3 (KCC3, SLC12A6) is involved in cell proliferation and in electro-neutral movement of ions across the cell membrane. The gene ( SLC12A6) is located on chromosome 15q14, a region that has previously shown linkage with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, rolandic epilepsy, idiopathic generalized epilepsy, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity Entinostat disorder. Furthermore, recessively inherited mutations of SLC12A6 cause Andermann syndrome, characterized find more by agenesis of the corpus callosum,

which is associated with peripheral neuropathy and psychoses. Recently, we have demonstrated the association of two G/A promoter polymorphisms of SLC12A6 with bipolar disorder in a case-control study, and familial segregation of the rare variants as well as a trend toward association with schizophrenia. To investigate functional consequences of these polymorphisms, lymphocyte DNA was extracted, bisulfite modified, and subsequently sequenced. To investigate SLC12A6 promoter activity, various promoter constructs were generated and analyzed by luciferase reporter gene assays. We provide evidence that the G-allele showed a significant reduction of reporter gene expression. In human lymphocytes, the allele harboring the rare upstream G nucleotide was found to be methylated at the adjacent C position, possibly accountable for tissue-specific reduction in gene expression in vivo. Here we demonstrate functionality of an SNP associated with psychiatric disease and our results may represent a functional link between genetic variation and an epigenetic modification.”
“Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to vascular regeneration.

Since we also found that 16E5 did not alter cell surface EGF bind

Since we also found that 16E5 did not alter cell surface EGF binding, the number of EGFRs on the cell surface, or the endocytosis of prebound EGF, we postulated that it might be blocking the fusion of early endosomes www.selleckchem.com/products/shp099-dihydrochloride.html with acidified vesicles. Our studies with pH-sensitive and -insensitive fluorescent EGF conjugates and fluorescent dextran confirmed that E5 prevented endosome maturation (acidification and enlargement) by inhibiting endosome fusion. The E5-dependent defect in vesicle fusion was not due to detectable disruption of actin, tubulin, vimentin, or cytokeratin

filaments, suggesting that membrane fusion was being directly affected rather than vesicle transport. Perhaps most importantly, while bafilomycin A1 (like E5) binds to 16K and inhibits endosome acidification, it did not mimic the ability of E5 to inhibit endosome enlargement or the trafficking of EGF. Thus, 16E5 alters EGF endocytic trafficking via a pH-independent inhibition of vesicle fusion.”
“Dengue viruses (DENV) comprise a family of related positive-strand RNA MK-8931 viruses that infect up to 100 million people annually.

Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy to prevent infection or diminish disease severity. Protection against DENV is associated with the development of neutralizing antibodies that recognize the viral envelope (E) protein. Here, with the goal of identifying monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that can function as postexposure therapy, we generated a panel of 82 new MAbs against DENV-3, including 24 highly neutralizing MAbs. Using yeast surface display, we localized the epitopes of the most strongly neutralizing MAbs to the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the DENV type 3 (DENV-3) E protein. While several MAbs functioned prophylactically to prevent DENV-3-induced lethality in a stringent intracranial-challenge model of Taselisib cost mice, only three MAbs exhibited therapeutic

activity against a homologous strain when administered 2 days after infection. Remarkably, no MAb in our panel protected prophylactically against challenge by a strain from a heterologous DENV-3 genotype. Consistent with this, no single MAb neutralized efficiently the nine different DENV-3 strains used in this study, likely because of the sequence variation in DIII within and between genotypes. Our studies suggest that strain diversity may limit the efficacy of MAb therapy or tetravalent vaccines against DENV, as neutralization potency generally correlated with a narrowed genotype specificity.”
“A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miRNA 203 (miR-203), which has previously been shown to play an important role in epithelial cell biology by regulating p63 levels. We investigated how expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) oncoproteins E6 and E7 affected miR-203 expression during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs.

In particular, we study the influence of an upper mixed layer (UM

In particular, we study the influence of an upper mixed layer (UML) in this system and show that it leads to a variety of dynamic effects: (i) Our model predicts alternative density profiles with a maximum of biomass either within or below the UML, there by the system may be bistable or the relaxation from an unstable state may require a long-lasting transition. (ii) Reduced mixing in

the deep layer can induce oscillations of the biomass; we show that a UML can sustain these oscillations even if the diffusivity is less than the critical mixing for a sinking phytoplankton population. (iii) A UML can strongly modify the outcome of competition between different phytoplankton species, yielding bistability both in the spatial distribution and in the species composition. (iv) A light limited selleck chemicals llc species can obtain a competitive advantage AZD5363 price if the diffusivity in the deep layers is reduced

below a critical value. This yields a subtle competitive exclusion effect, where the oscillatory states in the deep layers are displaced by steady solutions in the UML. Finally, we present a novel graphical approach for deducing the competition outcome and for the analysis of the role of a UML in aquatic systems. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gait initiation (GI) is the transient period between posture and movement. Its central programming takes into account the environmental constraints as well as the constraints induced by the body itself. Patients with peripheral sensory neuropathies display a severe proprioceptive deficit leading to balance and gait impairments and rely on a variety of compensatory mechanisms

and are known to be dependent on vision. Cl was studied on eight healthy subjects and five patients in order to assess the effect of somatosensory loss on the different phases of GI, combined with a manipulation of the visual inputs. Our main hypothesis PD173074 molecular weight is that the proprioceptive deficit would induce an adaptation of the Cl process, especially when modifying the lower part of peripheral vision. The results show that the pathology induces some adaptations of the Cl process, characterized by a decrease of the motor performance (assessed by the maximal anteroposterior velocity of the center of gravity at the end of the first step), a decrease in the spatial parameters (assessed by the peak amplitude of the backward shift of the center of foot pressure during the anticipation phase and the length of the first step), and a non-modification of the temporal parameters (assessed by the duration of the anticipation phase and of the first step). The suppression of the lower part of peripheral vision has no effect on the Cl process. The role of the lower part of peripheral vision seems therefore to be less critical for GI, than for balance and locomotion. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

40) and previous coronary disease (HR: 2 67, IC: 1 28-5 54) but n

40) and previous coronary disease (HR: 2.67, IC: 1.28-5.54) but not serum fibrinogen were independent predictors of non-fatal cardiovascular events. Both high CRP and high serum fibrinogen levels and previous congestive heart failure measured in CKD stages

3 and 4, are independent risk factors for all-cause of mortality. High CRP but find more not high serum fibrinogen is a risk factor for non-fatal cardiovascular events. These results suggest that high CRP and high serum fibrinogen provide prognostic information in CKD patients.”
“Previous studies have reported localization of substance P (SP) within the inner ear and that SP exists abundantly within vestibular endorgans. While SP’s functional role in the inner ear remains unclear, SP can act as a neuromodulator in the CNS and directly influences neuronal excitability. We hypothesized that SP might influence neuronal excitability within the vestibular periphery. The present study used the sinusoidal rotation test to investigate the influence of SP after its local application in the guinea pig unilateral Selleck Tucidinostat inner ear. A tiny hole was made adjacent to the round window in the right ears of Hartley white guinea pigs that had normal tympanic membranes and Preyer reflexes. An osmotic pump infused SP (10(-4) M, 10(-3) M, and 10(-1) M), neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist (10(-3) M) alone, or SP (10(-3) M) + NK-1 receptor antagonist (10-3 M) through this hole, with rotation tests

performed before, and 12 h and 24 h after the treatment. Results were used to calculate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains. After administration of 10(-3) M and 10(-1) M SP, significant increases in the VOR gains were noted at 12 h after treatment, with these gains disappearing by 24 h after treatment. This increase was not observed when there was simultaneous NK-1 receptor antagonist administration. There were also no changes in the VOR gains noted after administration ISRIB datasheet of 10(-4) M SP or the NK-1 receptor

antagonist alone. These results indicate the possibility that SP may act on vestibular endorgans as an excitatory factor via the NK-1 receptors. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are the main tool to achieve anemia correction in CKD patients. At present six different ESAs are available: epoetin alpha, epoetin beta, epoetin omega, epoetin delta, darbepoetin alpha, and very recently CERA. From one side the patent of older ESAs have expired, and biosimilars (for the moment only of epoetin alpha) have been approved for use in Europe by the European Medicines Agency. However, a number of issues about bioequivalence and how to test it are still to be solved completely. In the mean time pharmaceutical research has kept on working, developing new ESAs and alternative strategies for stimulating erythropoiesis. In this review we present and discuss these points.”
“Ecto-peptidases hydrolyze peptides in the extracellular fluid of the brain.

While GABAergic and glycinergic endings are maturing and growing

While GABAergic and glycinergic endings are maturing and growing in number and size, their neurotransmitter content also appears to be developmentally

regulated. Quantitative ultrastructural immunocytochemistry with colloidal gold suggests that GABA and glycine accumulation in synaptic endings follows a staggered pattern, with labeling stabilizing at adult levels by postnatal day 21. This may account for adjustments in synaptic efficacy and strength. (c) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The number of octogenarians undergoing emergency surgery is increasing and may negate the impact of the beneficial advances. The aim of this study was to review octogenarians Selleckchem VX-809 with type A acute aortic dissection and assess the prognosis.

Methods: Fifty-eight patients with acute aortic dissection, whose average age was 83.2 years, were divided into 2 groups: Group I comprised 30 patients who underwent emergency surgery, and group II comprised 28 patients Selleck S63845 who were treated conservatively. We compared the 2 groups in terms of mortality and morbidity.

Results: In group I, postoperative hospital mortality was 13.3% (4 patients). In group II, 17 patients (60.7%) died in the hospital. In group I, although emergency aortic replacement

was successfully completed, 5 patients became bedridden after surgery and 2 patients died of pneumonia or stroke in the early stages of institutional care. Thirteen patients in group I died of malignancies, abdominal aortic rupture, traffic accident, heart failure, or late-stage senility in later phase. There was no difference in actuarial survivals at 5 years, which were 48.5%

in group I and 35.4% in group II.

Conclusion: Emergency surgery for octogenarians with acute aortic dissection showed acceptable mortality. However, families had to take responsibility for patients who experienced unconsciousness, find more had dementia, or became bedridden. It is important to have consensus between the family and surgeons about emergency surgical treatment for octogenarians.”
“Loss of temporal processing is characteristic of age-related loss of speech understanding observed in the elderly. Inhibitory glycinergic circuits provide input onto dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) projection neurons which likely serve to modulate excitatory responses to time-varying complex acoustic signals. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that age-related loss of inhibition would compromise the ability of output neurons to encode sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. Extracellular recordings were obtained from young and aged FBN rat DCN putative fusiform cells. Stimuli were SAM tones at three modulation depths (100, 50, and 20%) at 30 dB hearing level with the carrier frequency set to the unit’s characteristic frequency. Discharge rate and synchrony were calculated to describe SAM responses.

However, in the group of animals challenged only once per week wi

However, in the group of animals challenged only once per week with olanzapine, the metabolic side-effects markedly intensified

with the passage of time, whereby glucose intolerance and insulin resistance increased significantly compared to both baseline values and all other treatment groups. This previously unreported sensitization phenomenon represents Belnacasan chemical structure a novel finding that may have clinical implications for patients receiving intermittent antipsychotic drug dosing or with variable adherence to treatment.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder with an estimated heritability of up to 48%. The functional val158met polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been found to be associated with panic disorder and to influence limbic and prefrontal brain activation in response to unpleasant stimuli. In the present see more study, neuronal activation following

emotional stimulation was used as an endophenotype and investigated for association with the COMT val158met polymorphism in panic disorder. Twenty patients with panic disorder were scanned by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla under visual presentation of emotional faces and genotyped for the COMT val158metpolymorphism. In response to fearful faces, increased this website activation in the right amygdala was observed in patients carrying at least one 158val allele. Increased activation or less deactivation associated with the 158val allele was seen upon presentation

of fearful, angry and happy faces in the orbitofirontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. Our data provide preliminary evidence for a role of the functional val158met COMT polymorphism in amygdala and prefrontal activation in response to emotional faces in panic disorder. This COMT variant might increase the vulnerability to panic disorder by modulating dopaminergic tonus in relevant brain regions and thus altering neuronal processing of anxiety-related emotional cues. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Many vascular surgeons construct arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis access as the primary choice access. A significant number of AVFs fail to mature, however, leading to patient frustration and repeated operations. Metalloproteinase (MIMP) activity, particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, may be important for AVF maturation. We therefore sought to identify whether serum MMP levels could serve as a biomarker for predicting future successful AVF maturation.

Methods: Blood was collected from patients with chronic renal insufficiency at the time of surgery for long-term hemodialysis access. Serum was separated from whole blood and ultracentrifuged at 1000g for 10 minutes. Serum aliquots were frozen at -80 degrees C until used for analysis.

In this study, we examine the mechanisms underlying this effect,

In this study, we examine the mechanisms underlying this effect, in particular the roles of cholecystokinin (CCK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), in an animal model of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation induced by spinal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Although spinal administration of LY-225910 (25 ng), a CCK-B antagonist, enhanced morphine analgesia in naive rats, it was unable to do so in LPS-treated animals. Conversely, spinal CCK-8S administration (1 ng) decreased morphine analgesia in LPS-treated rats, but not in naive animals. Further, spinal anti-NGF (3 mu g) was able to reduce morphine analgesia in LPS-treated rats, but not in naive animals, an effect that was reversed by spinal administration of LY225910. While CCK-8S concentration was increased EPZ-6438 solubility dmso in spinal cord extracts of LPS animals as compared to controls, morphine-induced spinal CCK release in the extracellular space, as selleck compound measured by in-vivo spinal cord microdialysis was inhibited in LIPS animals as compared to controls, and this was reversed by anti-NGF pretreatment. Finally, chronic spinal administration

of beta-NGF (7 mu g/day) for 7 days enhanced spinal morphine analgesia, possibly by mimicking a CNS inflammatory state. We suggest that in intrathecally LPS-treated rats, spinal CCK release is altered resulting in enhanced morphine analgesia, and that this mechanism may be regulated to an important extent by NGF. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All GPX6 rights reserved.”
“Purpose:

Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction has been associated with aberrant ureteral smooth muscle organization. Recent evidence has shown that BMP4 may be involved in ureteral morphogenesis. We determined whether the disruption of BMP4 signaling results in abnormal smooth muscle investment of the ureter and ureteropelvic junction.

Materials and Methods: We used a Cre mediated Bmp4 knockout system to conditionally excise the Bmp4 gene in developing mouse embryos. Kidney rudiments were isolated from embryos at varying gestational ages from WT and conditional knockout mice. Metanephric kidney explants were cultured in the presence or absence of the BMP antagonist Noggin. Agarose beads pre-incubated with Gremlin, another BMP antagonist, were used for localized disruption of BMP signaling. Frozen sections and whole metanephric explants were then analyzed by immunofluorescence.

Results: Bmp4 gene excision resulted in a dose dependent loss of ureteral smooth muscle. Antagonism of BMP signaling inhibited ureteral smooth muscle investment in a dose dependent manner and was paralleled by a dose dependent decrease in the immediate downstream targets of BMP signaling, phosphorylated Smad1, 5 and 8. Localized antagonism of BMP resulted in the focal disruption of ureteral smooth muscle investment.

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights selleck compound reserved.”
“Measures

of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a principal components analysis of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed.”
“Purpose: We compared the efficiency of clearance of a simulated clot from a bladder model

using a 6-hole irrigation see more catheter, a traditional Malecot catheter and a modified Malecot catheter with additional side holes.

Materials and Methods: Latex balloons 12 inches in diameter served as the bladder model. They were filled with 300 cc Jell-O (R) gelatin, which had been partially solidified for 8 hours at 36F. Five manual irrigation/aspiration cycles with a 60 cc catheter tip syringe were performed

to remove simulated clot from the bladder models and the amount of clot removed was measured. Five bladder models were used to test the efficiency of clot removal for each 22Fr catheter design, including a standard 22Fr Model 361222 Malecot latex 4-wing catheter (Rusch, High Wycombe, United Kingdom) and a 22Fr Bardex (R) Model 606118-22 latex 6-hole catheter. Two modified versions of the Malecot catheter design involving 2 and 4 additional holes were also tested to determine the effect of a hybrid 6-hole/Malecot design.

Results: S3I-201 cost The 6-hole catheter was more efficient for clot evacuation than the Malecot catheter (p = 0.014). The modified Malecot catheter with 4 additional holes was more efficient than the original Malecot catheter (p = 0.020). However, it was not significantly better than the 6-hole catheter. After 5 irrigation/aspiration cycles 77.0% of residual clot remained in the bladder with the Malecot catheter compared to 60.4% and 54.0% for the 6-hole and modified 4-hole Malecot catheters, respectively.

Conclusions: The 6-hole catheter showed an advantage in clot removal over the Malecot catheter design.