pestis has been described [6] Most of the chromosomal targets th

pestis has been described [6]. Most of the chromosomal targets that have been described previously did not differentiate Y. pestis from closely related Y. pseudotuberculosis or Y. enterocolitica [12]. The chromosomal signature sequence we developed for Y. pestis detection was based on a previous study employing comparative

genome hybridization to identify chromosomal regions specific for Y. pestis [17]. We selected a different region than the ypo2088 target which was used by these authors and later by Matero et al. [16], because examination of published genomes revealed that strain Y. pestis antiqua (accession # CP000308) does not possess this region. Although ypo339 was present in all 20 Y. pestis sequences

currently publicly available, 3 out of 4 isolates from the Nairobi cluster Bortezomib manufacturer appeared to lack this signature sequence. Hence, although ypo393 is a reliable signature sequence for most Y. pestis, strains lacking this sequence do exist. Our results illustrate that even if signature sequences selected for diagnostic purposes are based on a considerable amount of sequences available from genomes and sequence databases, uncharacterized strain variants may exist or new variants may arise that do not posses a particular target sequence. Conversely, amplification of the cry1 gene from some Bacillus strains other than B. thuringiensis was not anticipated as these strains were Chlormezanone not known to contain the plasmids carrying cry genes or homologues. Since it concerned related, selleck chemicals llc spore-forming Bacillus strains, these could also be used as internal controls. The primary focus of our assays was the sensitive and specific detection of the selected pathogens, minimizing false negative and false positive results. Strain differentiation was considered to be of only secondary interest. For F. tularensis, sensitive detection requires detection of the multicopy sequence ISFtu2. The targeted tranposase can also be present in F. philomiragia, but strain ATCC 225017 for instance, has only one

copy with mismatches in the probe and reverse primer. This explains the very low cross-reactivity with the four strains we investigated. Nevertheless, specific detection of the species F. PF-01367338 molecular weight tularensis was confirmed by additional detection of the fopA gene [13, 15]. Further subspecies information could be obtained from the pdpD target, which is known to be absent in subspecies holarctica (type B) [14] and was indeed not detected in the 16 strains we tested. With all targets positive, subsequent research is warranted however, as presence of this gene could also imply presence of the subspecies novicida and mediasiatica [28]. Subspecies mediasiatica is, similar to subspecies holarctica, a considerable public health threat although both species are less pathogenic compared to subspecies tularensis.

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