Psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires Shock pai

Psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Shock pain decreased significantly during counter-irritation in the controls AZD6244 mw (P<0.001) but not in IBS patients (P=0.52). Similarly, RIII-reflex amplitude declined during counter-irritation in the controls (P=0.009) but not in IBS patients (P=0.11). Furthermore, pain-related anxiety increased during counter-irritation in IBS patients (P=0.003) but not in the controls (P=0.74). Interestingly, across all subjects, counterirritation analgesia was positively correlated with RIII-reflex inhibition (r=0.39, P=0.04) and negatively with pain-related anxiety (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In addition, individual

differences in counter-irritation analgesia were predicted independently by the

modulation of RIII responses (P=0.03) and by pain catastrophizing (P=0.01), with the latter mediating the effect see more of pain-related anxiety. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that pain inhibition deficits in female IBS-D patients depend on two potentially separable mechanisms reflecting: (1) altered descending modulation and (2) higher-order brain processes underlying regulation of pain and affect. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Repair of bulbar strictures using anastomotic techniques may cause sexual complications, while 1-side graft urethroplasties may not be sufficient to provide an adequate lumen in narrow strictures. We evaluated the urinary and sexual results of a 2-sided dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty by preserving the narrow urethral plate in tight strictures.

Materials and

Methods: Between 2002 and 2010, 105 men with bulbar strictures underwent dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty. The results are reported in a homogeneous group of 73 of 105 cases in which buccal mucosa was used as Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 a graft with findings after 1 year or more of followup. The urethra was opened ventrally, and the exposed dorsal urethra was incised in the midline to create a raw area over the tunica albuginea where the first graft was placed dorsal-inlay. Thereafter the urethra was augmented by the ventral-onlay second graft and the spongiosum was closed over itself. Successful urethral reconstruction was defined as normal voiding without the need for any postoperative procedure. Postoperative sexual dysfunction was investigated using a validated questionnaire.

Results: Mean followup was 48.9 months and mean stricture length was 3.3 cm. Of these 73 cases 64 (88%) were successful and 9 (12%) were treatment failures with re-stricture. Furthermore, of 49 of 73 cases who were preoperatively sexually active, none reported postoperative erectile impairment and all were satisfied with their sexual life.

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