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Dyke TE, Dewhirst F, et al.: Comparisons of subgingival microbial profiles of refractory periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and periodontal health using the human oral microbe identification microarray. J Periodontol 2009,80(9):1421–1432.PubMedCrossRef 43. Paster BJ, Russell MK, Alpagot T, Lee AM, Boches SK, Galvin IL, Dewhirst FE: Bacterial diversity in necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis in HIV-positive subjects. Ann Periodontol 2002,7(1):8–16.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ATD collected samples, extracted DNA for HOMIM analysis, and drafted the manuscript. SC performed HOMIM assays. SS recruited patients for the study and collected samples. CL participated in the design of the study and performed statistical analyses. CML performed statistical analyses. SD participated in the design of the study and edited the manuscript. BJP participated in

the design and coordination of the study and edited the manuscript. MDG conceived of the study and its design, directed its coordination, and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background β-lactam mafosfamide antibiotics are an important arsenal of agents used against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance to this class of antimicrobials is therefore of immense clinical significance. It is important to investigate the epidemiology of strains that are resistant to β-lactam antibiotics especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where treatment with alternative or more effective agents may be beyond the reach of majority of patients. Before treatment using β-lactam antibiotics is initiated, proper and timely identification of the β-lactamase phenotype is of critical importance. Failure or delay to do this may lead to therapeutic failure and death of patients [1].

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