The main concerns are the reactivity and unstability of reactants, the problem of dilution and the possibility of cross reactions with amino acids (glycine is one of the main products obtained in experiments spark discharges). To overcome these problems, it has been hypothesized that water freezing could generate adequate conditions for the reaction, thanks to the exclusion of solutes to concentrated interstitial brines in the ice matrix (Orgel, 2004). Following this hypothesis, cytosine and uracil were JQ-EZ-05 purchase synthesized from cyanoacetaldehyde and urea in freezing solution (Cleaves et al. 2006). Here we report an efficient synthesis of cytosine and Selleckchem Lenvatinib uracil
from urea 0.1 M in water and subjected to freeze-melt cycles during one week, under methane/nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere, using spark discharges as energy source during the first 72 h of experiment. The analysis by GC/MS of the product shows, from major to minor concentrations, the synthesis of cyanuric acid, ammeline, the pyrimidines uracil, cytosine and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine,
ammelide, melamine and adenine. Amino acids, carboxylic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. Interestingly, we did not find insoluble organics. In conclusion, the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines is possible under methane atmospheres in freezing urea solutions. The high efficient synthesis of triazines plus the possible role of triazines as Selleck IWR 1 purine/pyrimidine mimics (Hysell et al. 2005) opens an interesting way for study. Clarke, D.W. and Ferris, J. (1997). Titan haze: structure and properties of cyanoacetylene and cyanoacetylene-acetylene photopolymers. Icarus, 127:158–172. Cleaves, H.J., Nelson, K.E. and Miller S. (2006). The prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines in frozen solution. Naturwissenschaften, 93(5):228–231. Ferris, J., Sanchez, R. and Orgel, L. (1968). Studies in prebiotic Demeclocycline synthesis. III. Synthesis of pyrimidines from cyanoacetylene and cyanate. J.
Mol. Biol. 33:693–704. Ferris, J., Zamek, O.S., Altbuch, A.M. and Freiman M. (1974). Chemical evolution. 18. Synthesis of pyrimidines from guanidine and cyanoacetaldehyde. J. Mol. Evol. 3:301–309. Hysell, M., Siegel, J.S., and Tor Y. (2005). Synthesis and stability of exocyclic triazine nucleosides. Org. Biomol.Chem., 3:2946–2952. Orgel, L. (2004). Prebiotic adenine revisited: eutectics and photochemistry. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 34:361–369. Robertson, M. and Miller, S. (1995). An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil. Nature, 375:772–774. Sanchez, R., Ferris, J. and Orgel, L. (1966). Conditions for purine synthesis: did prebiotic synthesis occur at low temperatures? Science 153:72–73. Shapiro, R. (1999). Prebiotic cytosine synthesis. A critical analysis and implications for the origin of life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 96:4396–4401. Shapiro, R. (2002).