Therefore, numerous metabolic engineering approaches have been at

Therefore, numerous metabolic engineering approaches have been attempted to construct optimal microorganisms capable of co-fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously. Here, we present recent findings and breakthroughs in engineering yeast for improved ethanol production from mixed sugars. In particular, this review discusses new sugar transporters, various strategies for simultaneous co-fermentation of mixed sugars, and potential PF-02341066 concentration applications of co-fermentation

for producing fuels and chemicals.”
“Accurate and highly sensitive tests for the diagnosis of active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are essential for the clinical management of individuals infected with EBV. A calibrated quantitative real-time PCR assay for the measurement of EBV DNA of both EBV-1 and 2 subtypes was developed,

combining the detection of the EBV DNA and a synthetic DNA calibrator in a multiplex PCR format. The assay displays a wide dynamic range and a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of 1 mu g of human genomic DNA. This assay measures with the same efficiency EBV DNA from strains prevalent in different geographic areas. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the system were evaluated by testing 181 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and plasma specimens obtained from 21 patients subjected to bone marrow transplantation, 70 HIV-seropositive subjects and 23 healthy controls. Patients affected by EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoprolipherative disorders had the highest frequency of EBV detection and the highest viral selleck load. Persons infected with HIV had higher levels of EBV DNA load in PBMCs and a higher frequency of EBV plasma viremia compared to healthy controls. Metabolism inhibitor In conclusion, this new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the quantitation of EBV DNA in clinical samples. (C) 2011 Elsevier

B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Phenytoin sodium/diphenyl hydantoin (DPH) is used by a major segment of epileptics and neuro, surgery patients with head injury to prevent seizures. DPH is a known mutagen, carcinogen, and teratogen. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are critical for various tissues and were reported to act as anti-mutagenic agents. In the present study we assessed the effect of five EFAs on DPH-induced genetic damage both in vitro and in vivo. DPH induced significant genetic damage. Of all the EFAs (linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid) studied, all except eicosapentaenoic acid showed significant decrease in DPH induced genetic damage as assessed by micronucleus (MN) test. However, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was found to be the most effective in reducing the number of MN containing lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo to control values.

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