This modification could also explain the increased resistance to

This modification could also explain the Z-DEVD-FMK mouse increased resistance to Az in F. tularensis LVS. In addition, there are methylases that can confer increased resistance by targeted

modification (methylation) of a specific adenine residue of the 23S rRNA. There are some methylases that have been identified as critical virulence factors for Francisella that might carry out this modification [39]. Some methylases that are present in the genome of F. novicida are either absent or are pseudogenes/nonfunctional genes (such as FTT0010, FTT0770, FTT1430, FTT1719, and FTT1735c) in F. tularensis Temsirolimus order Schu S4, potentially contributing to the different sensitivities to Az between the strains [34]. Any potential role of these molecules in Az sensitivity or resistance in Francisella has not yet been determined. It has been suggested that Az attaches to the acidic LPS on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, allowing the drug to penetrate through the outer membrane and enter the bacteria [40]. The wbt locus in Francisella, which is responsible for the production of LPS O-antigen, has been shown to be required for virulence [41]. In published reports, the wbtA mutant mTOR inhibitor in F. tularensis LVS demonstrated a loss of the O-antigen and an inability to replicate in mouse macrophages. F. novicida wbtA mutants replicate normally and have only moderate sensitivity to serum [42, 43]. We tested F. novicida transposon-insertion mutants wbtN, wbtE, wbtQ

and wbtA, which are involved in the production of LPS, and found that these mutants were less susceptible to Az. Mutations of the LPS in the F. novicida transposon LPS O-antigen mutants may alter the LPS region presumed to bind to Az, resulting in a decreased amount of Az penetration and increased resistance to Az. Our results support the proposed role of LPS O-antigen in Az penetration into gram-negative bacteria such as Francisella. Az is a weak base that can remain inside host cells for a longer time at a higher concentration than in the serum.

This occurs because the basic amine groups of Az neutralize the lysosomal pH and prevent acidification of the lysosome. This process causes the drug to become trapped in the cell due to the positive charge. The drug is slowly released from polymorphonuclear neutrophils, allowing for a long half-life [8]. Az Exoribonuclease also concentrates in macrophages, which suggested to us that it might be useful as a potential treatment of intracellular pathogens such as F. tularensis. J774A.1 mouse macrophage were infected with F. philomiragia, F. novicida, and F. tularensis LVS and treated with Az. It was determined that 5 μg/ml Az was effective in eliminating intracellular F. philomiragia, F. novicida, and even F. tularensis LVS infections in J774A.1 cells. Although Type B strains are intrinsically more resistant to macrolides, F. tularensis LVS CFUs were eliminated below the Az MIC values for this strain. We suggest that J774A.

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