This therapy is not only used in genetic deficiencies, but also in other complicated diseases, such as viral infection (human immunodeficiency virus), autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis), cancer, diabetes, coronary, and selleckchem artery disease . With the progress of this technique, gene therapy will become an effective therapeutic method for neurodegenerative conditions, hemophilia, AIDS, asthma, and the myriad of other genetic and acquired
diseases that affect humanity . By considering the mentioned issues, the choice of a suitable method for DNA delivery to the targeted cells beseems very important at the point of receiving appropriate genes. Although gene therapy can be carried out using naked DNA into the target cells, having negative nature of cellular membrane and negative charge of large DNA molecules, the nucleic acid-based therapeutics cannot cross cellular membranes by simple passive diffusion methods. Hence, to facilitate the transfer of DNA molecules into a cell, the existence of a vector is necessary [6, 7]. Viral and non-viral vectors, two major types of vectors for gene delivery, are currently being utilized in clinical trials at similar levels. In gene delivery,
it is relatively common to follow biomimetic approaches. Biological systems include modified viruses and mildness bacteria. Viral vectors are more efficient than non-viral vectors for
DNA delivery but may present a CB-839 ic50 significant risk to patients, selleck while non-viral carriers are inherently ifenprodil safer than viral carriers [8–10]. Furthermore, in contrast to the viral gene delivery systems, the non-viral carriers are expected to be less immunogenic, with simple preparation and a possible versatile surface modification . The non-viral vectors are usually made of lipids or polymers with/without using other inorganic materials where they can also be prepared from a lipid-polymer or lipid-polymer-inorganic hybrid. The choice of gene delivery strategies among several delivery systems depend on some factors including the improvement of vectors, kind of expression systems, and better understanding of molecular biology of target site and employing of the advances in the identification of new genes and new targets . Recently, nanotechnology approaches play an important role in the design novel and efficient non-viral gene delivery vectors. In this review, we will focus on introducing lately synthesized nanoparticles as vectors with gene delivery applications. Non-viral vectors In considering the viral gene delivery vector safety concerns regarding the risk of excessive immune response (adenovirus) and insertion mutagenesis (retroviruses), the use of non-viral vectors can overcome the mentioned safety problems .