GSEA found that the genes

GSEA found that the genes Brefeldin A buy in the REST 24 gene signature were indeed down regulated in a statistically significant manner in a subset of gliomas. A second gene list examining 30 REST target genes not present in the 24 gene signature that were induced at least 2 fold in at least 2 of three cell lines tested in Wagoner et al was also strongly under expressed in the same subset of gliomas. This suggests that enhanced REST is not limited to a small set of REST target genes. Finally, GSEA was performed based on a geneset comprised of over 800 REST target genes identified in Jurkat T cells as REST targets by ChIP Seq after removal of the 24 gene signature. This analysis confirms the statistically significant down regulation of REST target genes in gliomas with respect Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to non neoplastic tissue, sug gesting an increase in REST function in the tumors.

Intriguingly, the increased REST function observed in gli omas was not uniform across all tumors, with some tumors expressing REST target genes near the levels observed in non neoplastic tissue. To determine whether the intertu moral variation of REST function is significant, we ranked tumors by expression of the 24 gene signature and then divided gliomas into groups of high and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries low expression of REST signature genes. Tumors with low level expression of genes in the REST signature were termed REST enhanced malignancies, and those with expression levels of REST target genes at or near that of normal, non neoplastic tissue were termed near normal tumors.

Using the above three independent REST gene lists, GSEA found statistically significant decreases Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in REST Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries target gene mRNA levels, suggesting that a significant population of these high grade gliomas have heightened REST function. Given that many REST target genes are highly expressed in mature neurons, one possible explanation for the ele vated REST function observed in REM tumors could Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries be that those tumors have low levels of neuronal involvement or neuronal contamination. To determine if higher levels of neurons are present in near normal glioma tumor sam ples with respect to REM tumors, we first had to identify genes selectively expressed in neurons that are not likely REST target genes. These genes were selected from a gene expression dataset comparing fluorescently sorted neurons, astrocytes, and glia from the murine CNS.

First, we identified those genes that are most highly and selectively expressed in neurons. Then we product information filtered out any genes that had been identified as a potential REST target in published ChIP ChIP or ChIP Seq experiments, or contained a consensus 21bp REST binding element. Figure 4A validates the resulting 6 genes that are not REST targets as neuron specific. Evaluation of neuronal non REST target genes found that there was no concerted up regulation of all neu ronal non REST markers in either REM or near normal tumors.

Map Kinases such as Mapk3, Mapk4 and Mapk15 were tar geted by DEH

Map Kinases such as Mapk3, Mapk4 and Mapk15 were tar geted by DEHP. Further investigations of Map Kinase pathways selleck screening library could be relevant due to their involvement in activities of transcription factors. The G protein coupled estrogen receptor was found to be over expressed in Differential Display. Gper can be activated by estrogen like compounds and its effect on cytoskeleton architecture has been Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries reported. Because of its implication in the regulation of MAPK or TGF b pathways, it would be worth while to investigate gper further. Performances of DD The confirmation of differentially expressed genes by qPCR showed that the expression levels of more than 75% of genes identified by DD were confirmed by qPCR. A comparative table of the sensitivity of DD versus qPCR is given in additional file 1.

qPCR is more likely to quan tify subtle changes in the expression level of mRNAs at different concentrations while DD seems to be more sen sitive but is less discriminating. To summarize, 35% of the genes identified Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries as differentially expressed in DD gave the same response at the same DEHP concentrations with qPCR while 40% were detected by DD at a lower DEHP concentration than with qPCR. Conclusion Transcriptional responses of SHE cells to DEHP were stu died in conditions inducing the cell neoplastic transforma tion, in order to identify gene expression changes in relation with effects of this non genotoxic carcinogen. Functions impacted by DEHP were found to be PPAR independent. Effects on cytoskeleton related genes indi cated disturbances on actin polymerization and stabiliza tion, cell cell and cell matrix adhesion and protein trafficking.

This is the first study that elucidates Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the genomic changes of DEHP on the organization of the cytoskele ton. Whether the expression changes of cytoskeleton related genes Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries identified here such as coro1C, nrp2, kif23, are specific to DEHP or to cell transforming agents more generally would Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries require further studies. To answer, the gene sets identified as significantly over or under expressed in this study must be explored on other non genotoxic carcinogens to identify biomarkers predictive of early events in the multistep carcinogenic process. Early disturbances in the expression of cytoskeleton related genes should be considered good candidates. Methods Chemicals DEHP, purchased from Aldrich Chemicals was dissolved in the DMSO solvent.

The latter was obtained from Sigma Aldrich and was used at a final concentration of 0. 1%. Nucleic acid stain Gelred purchased from Interchim was used at a final concentration of 1,10000. All chemicals used for this study were electrophoresis grade or molecular biology grade. Their origin is speci fied in the following sections. SHE cell culture and treatment selleck chemical Imatinib SHE cells were isolated from Syrian hamster embryos at day 13 of gestation using the procedure described by Pienta et al.

Based on their biological functions in rice or other species, the

Based on their biological functions in rice or other species, the predicted target genes appear to be involved in various bio logical processes. For example, miR159 regulates a MYB gene, which is considered a positive regulator of the GA response during grain maturation. The targets of miR160, Os04g43910 and Os04g59430, are auxin responsive factors, which are important compo nents of auxin signal transduction. MiR444 targeted a type of MADS box transcription factor Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries that is similar to an Arabidopsis homolog Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries that has roles in fruit dehiscence. Moreover, transcription factors, such as NAC do main proteins, growth factors, and the SCARECROW gene regulator, have been observed in other cellular growth developmental processes.

Differential expression of miRNAs and their target genes seem to form Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a compli cated regulatory Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries network that plays a critical role during grain filling in rice. Discussion Using high throughput sequencing and customized miRNA chips, we analyzed small RNAs in developing transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in grain development. Although a number of studies of small RNAs have been carried out using grains from various developmen tal stages and from various rice accessions, novel miR NAs involved in this process have been continuously discovered. We sequenced small RNA pools from the developing caryopsis of the indica landrace, Baifeng B, at different stages of development and revealed many classes of conserved miRNAs as well as novel ones. The discovery of 11 novel miRNA candidates was supported by detection of corresponding miRNA s that were consistent with recent miRNA criteria for characterization.

No homologous members were reported in other species, indicating that they are prob ably rice specific and found only with extensive tissue sampling. miRNAs have dynamic expression patterns in developing grains Many miRNAs display temporal or tissue specific ex pression patterns. Our sequencing results revealed that more than 100 known rice Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries miRNAs were expressed in the rice grain. Several, such as miR156, miR159, miR164, miR166, miR167 and miR396, were expressed at high levels, indicating that, as they are highly expressed in other tissues such as leaf and root, these conserved miRNAs are possibly important regula tors for rice plant development. Our chip data showed that known and novel miRNAs were expressed differentially during the grain filling process.

Approximately half of the conserved miRNAs detected were up regulated from 6 to 20 DAF, whereas approximately half were down regulated. Compared with previous reports, the expression levels of most miRNAs were approximately the same or up regulated during inhibitor Idelalisib the periods 1 5 and 6 10 DAF. Some miRNA genes, such as miR159 and miR399, displayed continu ally high expression levels throughout grain filling.

However, persistent viremia at very low levels is detected even i

However, persistent viremia at very low levels is detected even in these cases using highly sensi tive methods, and treatment interruption, even after years of successful therapy, results in viral rebound. Targeted eradication of latently Oligomycin A price infected cells and of virus producing cellular reservoirs appears to be essential to cure HIV infection, which represents Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the ultimate goal of antiretroviral therapy. HIV has evolved mechanisms to influence the balance of death and survival of the host cell in order to pro mote efficient virus replication. By directly and indir ectly destroying cells of the immune system the virus undermines host defense mechanisms. On the other hand, activation and temporary survival of infected immune cells is also essential for productive virus repli cation.

Tipping this delicate balance by drug induced enhancement of HIV mediated cytotoxicity could poten tially be exploited as a means for rapid elimination Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of infected cells. To explore this strategy we focused on the viral protease. While several other HIV encoded proteins, in particular Vpr, Tat, Nef and Vpu, have been reported to play complex roles in cell activa tion and cell destruction, mainly through induction or inhibition of apoptosis, the intricate processes mediated by these accessory proteins are not restricted to the infected cell itself, but can exert bystander effects on non infected cells. In contrast, a more direct role in killing of the infected cell has been suggested for HIV PR.

Overexpression of PR Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in various systems or prema ture activation of PR in virus producing cells, respec tively, has Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries been shown to result in cell death, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries presumably by off target cleavage of cellular proteins. PR is an aspartic protease expressed as part of the viral Gag Pol polyprotein precursor. It is encoded in the viral genome as an enzymatically inactive monomer, whose dimerization is required for formation of the active site. Although the mechanism of HIV PR activa tion in the course of the viral replication cycle is cur rently not fully understood, it is believed that PR dimer formation through dimerization of the Gag Pol precur sor does play a role else in this process. PR is essential for proteolytic processing of the viral Gag and Gag Pol precursor proteins into their func tional subunits. This process occurs concomitant with or shortly after particle release and results in mor phological maturation of the virion into its infectious form. Enhanced or premature processing of precursor proteins prevents their assembly into an immature viral particle. the temporal regulation of proteoly tic maturation is thus crucial for HIV replication.

In conclusion, the induction

In conclusion, the induction PD173955? of neuronal ApoE by either neuroinflammatory or excitotoxic agents or neu rotoxins, acting through MLK pathways suggests that alterations in these signaling pathways, together with other neuropathological entities in AD brain, may have consequences for ApoE expression. Differences in this expression may be critical, considering the role of APOE genotype in AD risk. The response of ApoE to IL 1b we show here in rodent brain suggests that elevation of IL 1 leads to the increases in ApoE that we and others have observed in the AD brain. This may have added significance with regard to the self propagating nature of IL 1 driven cascades, especially when such cascades are instigated in the context of an ��4 allele of APOE.

While induction of ApoE2 or ApoE3 may be anti inflammatory or neuroprotective, and thereby act as a self limiting influence on IL 1 driven cascades, ApoE4 may fail to participate and leave the brain vulnerable to prolonged activation of a maladaptive cycle. Background Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries disorders, characterized by brain vacuolation, neuronal cell death, and microgliosis. They are caused by the conversion of cellular prion protein into the pathological isoform through conformational changes. PrPSc is protease resistant, and has a higher proportion of B sheet structure in place of the normal helix structure. The accumu lation of abnormal forms of prion protein has been shown to be the main causative agent of these diseases.

The neurotoxic PrP fragment 106126 pos sesses similar physicochemical Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and pathogenic properties to PrPSc, in that it forms amyloid fibrils with a high B sheet content, shows partial proteinase K resistance, and is neuro toxic in vitro. Therefore, PrP106 126 is commonly used as a model for the investigation of PrPSc neurotoxicity. A large number of studies have shown that Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the accu mulation of aggregated PrPSc leads to activation of micro glia, and these in turn produce chemotatic factors, pro inflammatory cytokines, and neurotoxic factors. Furthermore, studies on brains from prion infected mice have found upregulation of multiple cytokines and chemo kines, including interleukin 1B, tumor necrosis factor, and chemokine ligand 3. IL 1B plays a central role in the regulation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of immune and inflammatory responses.

It is Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries produced as the in active precursor pro IL 1B in the cytosol, and a variety of stimuli can lead to higher expression of pro IL 1B. The inactive pro IL 1B can be cleaved by protease caspase 1 into the mature, active form, IL 1B. Several studies have shown that synthetic neurotoxic prion frag ments activate mouse microglia and lead to an increase in the production of IL 1B in vitro. however, the mechanism by which PrP106 126 induces selleck compound IL 1B release is yet unknown.

Wash buffer I was then added

Wash buffer I was then added fairly to the upper reservoir of the filter tube, which was then centrifuged for Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 15 seconds at 8,000 g. The filter tube was removed from the Collection Tube and the flowthrough liquid was then discarded. Wash Buffer II was added to the upper reservoir of the Filter Tube, which was then centrifuged for 15 seconds at 8,000 g and the flowthrough was discarded. Wash buffer II was added to the upper reservoir of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the filter tube, which was centrifuged for 2 minutes full speed at approxi mately 13,000 g. The column was then carefully removed from the collection tube such that the column did not con tact the flow through to avoid ethanol carryover. The filter tube was then inserted into a 1. 5 mL nuclease free and sterilized microcentrifuge tube.

Elution Buffer was added to the upper reservoir of the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries filter tube. the tube assembly was then centrifuged for 1 minute at 8,000 g resulting in eluted RNA in the microcentrifuge tube. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted using LightCycler TaqMan Master in a single capillary tube according to the manufacturers guidelines for indi vidual component concentrations. primers were each designed based on individual exons of the target gene sequence to avoid amplifying genomic DNA. During PCR, the probe was hybridized to its comple mentary single strand DNA sequence within the PCR target. As amplification occurred, the probe was de graded due to the exonuclease activity of Taq DNA poly merase, thereby separating the quencher from reporter Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries dye during extension.

During the entire amplification cycle, light emission increased exponentially. A positive result was determined by identifying the threshold cycle value at which reporter dye emission Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries appeared above the background. Western lot analysis of PBMNC specimens for RhoROCK activity Equal amounts of extracted proteins from BPMNCs in each patient were loaded and separated by SDS PAGE using 7% or 12% acrylamide gradients. The membranes were incubated with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against myosin phosphatase, p MYPT, myosin light chain, p MLC, and small GTP binding proteins RhoA, Rac. Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes which were then incubated in the primary antibody solu tion for two hours, followed by incuba tion with the second antibody solution for one hour at room temperature. The washing procedure was repeated eight times within 40 minutes. Immunoreactive bands were visualized by enhanced chemiluminescence, which was then exposed to Biomax L film. For quantifi cation, ECL signals were digitized using Labwork software. For oxyblot protein analysis, a standard control was loaded on each gel.


Considering merely cyclin D1 as the common downstream target of multiple signaling in RCC target therapy, the current studies raised the possibility that expression level of DACH1 may determine targeting therapeutic sensitivity either directly or indirectly, therefore, affect the long term survival. p53 is a powerful tumor suppressor and small molecules that activated p53 had shown promising anti tumor effects in hematological malignancies. Recent findings that DACH1 associated with and enhanced p53 function to induced apoptosis provided an alternative mechanism for DACH1 to inhibit tumorigenesis. However, as a new tumor suppressor, detailed targets of DACH1 and its crosslinks with other oncogene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries tumor suppressors remain to be further clarified.

Materials and methods The study Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and Technology. Cell culture Human renal clear cell carcinoma cell lines CAKI 1 were cultured in McCoys 5A medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. ACHN cells were cultured in EMEM supplemented with 2 mM L glutamine, 1% non essential amino acids, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells were maintained in DMEM containing 1% penicillin streptomycin Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and supplemented with 10% FBS. Plasmid construction, stable cells, reporter genes, DNA transfection and luciferase assay Expression plasmids for DACH1 and DACH1 DS domain deleted mutation in pKW10 vector were a gift from Dr. Cvekl. After digestion with ClaI EcoRV, the insert was subcloned into a retrovirus expression vector.

Stable sublines expressing DACH1, DS and empty vector control were established by transient co transfection of DACH1 expressing vector with package plasmids in HEK293T cells. At 36 h and 48 h after trans fection, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the culture medium was collected and filtered through a 0. 45 um filter for infecting renal cancer cells in the presence of 8 mg ml polybrene. The pool of trans duced cancer cells was further selected by treatment with Blastcidin at 5ug ml for 2 weeks. Human cyclin D1 promoter constructs were a gift from Dr. Pestell. Plasmid DNA transfection and luciferase assays were performed as previously described. RNA selleck compound isolation, RT PCR and quantitative real time PCR Total RNA was isolated from CAKI cells stably expressing DACH1 and vector control using the TRIzol reagent following the manufacturers instructions. Five micrograms of total RNA was subjected to DNase treatment and purification following RNA minipre kit. cDNA was synthesized using the SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase Kit.

Based on these results, we and others have proposed that comprehe

Based on these results, we and others have proposed that comprehensive analysis of expression of all four HER family members, and their isoforms, as well as key components of their sig selleck chemicals naling networks may be necessary to improve the positive predictive value of these theragnostic and prognostic bio marker assays. In this study we show that trastuzumab treatment results in the acquisition of de novo sensitivity to gefitinib or cetuximab in three of four EOC cell lines tested, imply ing that HER2 signaling Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is dispensable in these cells con comitant with compensatory EGFR signaling. While we note that HER2 expression was decreased in all three cell lines which acquired de novo drug sensitivity, the small number of cell lines used and single time point tested prevent us from concluding that HER2 downregulation is the mechanism of trastuzumab prim ing.

It is interesting to note, however, that complemen tary observations have been made in prostate cancer. gefitinib treatment of the prostate Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cancer cell line 22Rv1 sensitizes cells to the HER2 targeted antibody pertu zumab. Our study also further highlights the differences observed between breast Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and ovarian cancer responsive ness to trastuzumab. Such differences are perhaps not surprising given that the progenitors of mesodermally derived ovarian surface epithelial cells vs. ectodermally derived breast epithelial cells diverge early during embryonic gastrulation. It is, therefore, likely that the growth regulatory roles of HER2, as well as other HER family receptors, are divergent in these two tissues.

Such functional differences Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries may be reflected in the empirical differences observed between these tumors, such as the higher frequency of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries HER2 gene amplification in breast vs. EOC tumors. In this context, while it is possible that long term trastuzumab treatment results in the selection of resistant ovarian cancer subclones, we favor the hypothesis that long term trastuzumab treatment may restrict generation to generation heritability of protein expression, a phenomenon recently described by Spencer et al. as a non genetic mechanism underlying tumor het erogeneity in response to targeted therapeutics. Moreover, a number of studies have demonstrated that in some HER2 positive breast carcinoma derived cell lines, trastuzumab treatment may not directly inhibit cell growth, but still results in latent but important pheno types. For selleck chemicals Vandetanib example, the HER2 positive breast cell line JIMT 1 in vitro and in xenograft models is not signifi cantly growth inhibited by trastuzumab, however, trastuzumab does inhibit establishment of distant metas tases.

Re cently, it has been suggested that alphaB crystallin pro motes

Re cently, it has been suggested that alphaB crystallin pro motes tumor progression by enhancing endothelial cell survival, resulting in efficient tumor vascularization. There are several studies that introduce sHsps and especially Hsp27 and alphaB crystallin as contribu tors to the epithelial mesenchymal Trichostatin A buy transition process. Both proteins interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate its dynamic status by inducing mesenchymal like spindle cells. thus, they may promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Consequently, alphaB crystallin may contribute to an aggressive behavior Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of tumors. this is in line with our observation that alphaB crystallin is more commonly found in BCP and in those non TNBC that have a high histological grade and pro liferation rate.

Of note, in the current study the majority of non TNBC alphaB crystallin positive cases were Luminal B tumors, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries which by definition have a high Ki67 labeling index. The expression of alphaB crystallin in a subset of non TNBC has been mentioned by other stud ies, as well. BCP constitute a tumor subgroup associated with BRCA1 mutations. Tumors of patients with BRCA1 germ line mutations usually display the basal core phenotype. In this study we found that alphaB crystallin is as sociated with BCP and BRCA1 mutational status but not with BRCA1 protein expression. Moreover, no significant association was found between mutational status and pro tein expression. Despite the small sample size of BRCA1 mutant cases, this result is in line with the global view that IHC does not reliably reflect BRCA1 gene status and cannot be used for assessing the impact of BRCA1 protein expression on prognosis.

We also found a strong association between alphaB crystallin and p53 ex pression, which is again in line with BCP BRCA1 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries mu tant tumors. alphaB crystallin overexpression prevents apoptosis, through the interaction of the p53 down regu lated genes, such as bax or pro caspase3. Recently, it was shown that alphaB crystallin binds to p53 to se quester its translocation to the mitochondria during hydrogen peroxide Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries induced apoptosis. Hence, like other Hsps, alphaB crystallin interacts with p53 and mod ulates its function. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries On the other hand, it is believed that p53 is involved in the regulation of Hsps in cancer and p53 mutations result in an increase of Hsp transcripts. Our IHC findings further support these interac tions, specifically between the alphaB crystallin and p53 sellckchem proteins. alphaB crystallin expression has been associated with poor clinical outcome in breast, head and neck and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moyano et al. found that this biomarker predicts for shorter disease specific survival, independent of other prognostic markers. By contrast, Chelouche Lev et al.

IRE1 XBP 1 has been shown to regulate a variety of genes in vario

IRE1 XBP 1 has been shown to regulate a variety of genes in various cell types in response to ER stress, mostly related to ER function and the secretory pathway, although the target genes vary depending on the cell type and nature of the stress selleckchem Ixazomib stimuli. In the proinsulin C96Y GFP model of ER stress numerous genes related to ER function, the secretory pathway and ER associated deg radation are increased. Here we show that some genes such as GRP78 are completely IRE 1 independent, which is consistent with GRP78 not requiring XBP 1 for its in duction. However, most other genes induced require IRE1 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries at least for maximal induction in response to mutant proinsulin induced ER stress. Previously we showed that perturbation of the ERAD pathway either by Herp knock down or proteasome inhib ition significantly perturbs mutant proinsulin Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries degradation and significantly enhances susceptibility to apoptosis.

Although the extent of the increase in gene expression was reduced for most genes in the presence of the inhibi tor, genes such as those coding for ERAD components are still increased. This may explain the lack of effect Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the inhibitor on the degradation of the mutant proinsulin and indicates that IRE1 output is not essential for maintaining ERAD capacity. Perhaps not surprisingly then, the inhibitor did not in crease susceptibility to apoptosis caused by mutant pro insulin expression. Several possibilities could contribute to a lack of effect on cell apoptosis, including reduced Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries RIDD activity in response to chronic stress caused by the misfolded proinsulin, in addition to less induction of some pro apoptotic genes such as Trb3 and TxNIP.

Combined with no compromise in ERAD or ability to induce the main ER chaperone BiP GRP78, cells are no worse off if the IRE1 pathway is inhibited in the con text of chronic ER stress caused by mutant proinsulin expression. Our results Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are consistent with the effect of the inhibitor in other secretory cells where inhibition of IRE1 reduced expansion of secretory capacity, but did not sensitize the cells to ER stress. IRE1 activation results in the production of the XBP1 transcription factor that in vivo is required for the devel opment of various secretory cells including pancreatic cells. Indeed, disruption of the XBP1 gene in pancreatic B cells in mice using the RIP Cre system re sulted in hyperglycemia and abnormal B cell function caused by decreased insulin secretion, decreased insulin granule content and impaired insulin processing.

In addition, depletion of XBP1 resulted in constitutive towards hy peractivation of IRE1 including its RIDD activity. Thus, although inhibition of IRE1 in the context of the Akita insulin mutation does not sensitize the cells to in creased apoptosis, it is possible that inhibition of IRE1 in vivo in a physiological context might be detrimental to pancreatic B cell survival.