These blast resistant accessions from the mini-core collection wo

These blast resistant accessions from the mini-core collection would be useful in finger millet disease resistance breeding programs.”
“Ghrelin has a potent orexigenic effect and induces adiposity when administered exogenously. Since plasma ghrelin levels rise before meals, ghrelin was thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of appetite. In contrast, mice deficient in the production of ghrelin or the corresponding receptor, GHS-R, do not eat less, throwing the role of ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis into question.

Since these mice lack ghrelin or GHS-R from the time of conception, the possibility that compensatory mechanisms may have arisen during GDC-0973 inhibitor development cannot be ruled out. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse model that expresses human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor cDNA under the control of the ghrelin promoter (GPDTR-Tg mice). As previously reported, an injection of DT into this mouse model ablates ghrelin-secreting cells in the stomach but not in the hypothalamus, resulting in a reduction in circulating learn more ghrelin levels. We used this model system to evaluate the physiological roles of circulating ghrelin in the regulation of food intake. Meal patterns, diurnal and nocturnal meal sizes, and cumulative food intake of DT-treated GPDTR-Tg mice were not affected, although circulating ghrelin

levels markedly decreased even after fasting. These

mice also displayed normal responses to starvation; however, the use of fat increased and slower weight gain when maintained on a high fat diet was observed. Together, these data suggest that circulating ghrelin does not play a crucial role in feeding behavior, but rather is involved in maintaining body weight.”
“The urinary tract is one of the most intractable mucosal surfaces for pathogens to colonize. In see more addition to the natural barriers at this site, potential pathogens have to contend with the vigorous local innate immune system. Several Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified on epithelial cells of the bladder and the kidneys which mediate a variety of powerful immune responses. A common finding among successful uropathogens is their intrinsic ability to suppress TLR-mediated responses. As antibiotic therapy becomes increasingly ineffective, employing boosters of the innate immune system in the urinary tract may become a viable option.”
“Background/Aim: The optimal treatment of liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGC) remains uncertain. We retrospectively compared surgical treatment with chemotherapy alone and identified prognostic determinants. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of 50 consecutive patients with LMGC: 25 patients with gastrectomy plus hepatic resection (group A), 13 patients with palliative gastrectomy (group B), and 12 patients with chemotherapy alone (group C).

Time and causes of delay were documented Results Of 57 record

Time and causes of delay were documented.\n\nResults Of 57 recorded files, 10 were classified in Group I and 47 in Group II. Causes leading to the late arrival of Group II patients were absence of routine newborn screening (NBS), PKU not included in the routine NBS, sampling after the recommended age, false negative result, results without interpretation and/or instructions to follow, delayed notification of results, poor medical criteria of attending physician, difficulties in obtaining confirmatory tests, and administrative failures.\n\nConclusion NU7026 The main cause of late referral of PKU patients was the absence of PKU testing. As a developing country, Mexico still

faces challenges in the proper functioning and expansion of the NBS programme. Most PKU patients arrived at the RC late, presenting with varying degrees of the clinical spectrum. Incorporating PKU testing into the already established Mexican NBS system and adding

quality indicators to guarantee proper operation in all NBS phases is necessary to achieve the goal of identifying, referring, diagnosing, and treating patients promptly.”
“The selleck chemical oral cavity is a significant niche of the human microbiome and a gateway for the microbiota in many other human body sites. As a result, understanding the oral microbiota has broad implications for the prevention and management of human infectious diseases. Opportunistic yeast infections

are among the most prevalent fungal infections of humans, and most opportunistic yeast pathogens are common residents of the oral mucosa. However, relatively little is known about the drug susceptibility profiles of oral yeasts. Here, we report the species distribution and patterns of antifungal susceptibility profiles among 313 yeasts isolated from the oral cavities of 301 asymptomatic AZD5363 molecular weight hospitalized patients in Hainan Province in southern China. These yeasts were tested for their susceptibilities to the following five drugs: amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and fluorocytosine. Since none of the sampled hosts had taken any antifungal drugs at least 3 months before samples were taken, we hypothesized that little or no drug resistance should be observed. Contrary to our expectations, our analyses identified that 29 % (91/313) of the isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 14.3 % (45/313) were resistant to two or more of the five common drugs. The potential sources of the observed resistance were discussed.”
“P>Filamentous pathogens, such as plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, secrete an arsenal of effector molecules that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. It is now well accepted that these effectors are key pathogenicity determinants that enable parasitic infection.

001) In the updating process, age, history, and additional candi

001). In the updating process, age, history, and additional candidate predictors did not significantly increase discrimination, being 94%, and leaving only 4 predictors of the original model: sex, skin prick test, peanut sIgE, and total IgE minus sIgE. When building a model with

sIgE to peanut components, Ara h 2 was Selleck Etomoxir the only predictor, with a discriminative ability of 90%. Cutoff values with 100% positive and negative predictive values could be calculated for both the updated model and sIgE to Ara h 2. In this way, the outcome of the food challenge could be predicted with 100% accuracy in 59% (updated model) and 50%(Ara h 2) of the patients.\n\nConclusions: Discrimination of the validated model was good; however, calibration was poor. The discriminative ability of Ara h 2 was almost comparable to that of the updated model, containing 4 predictors. With both models, the need for peanut challenges could be reduced by at least 50%. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;131:157-63.)”
“Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) have been found widely in the environment including remote marine locations. The mode of transport of PFASs to remote marine locations is a subject of considerable scientific interest. Assessment of distribution of PFASs in wet precipitation samples (i.e., rainfall and snow) collected over an area covering continental, coastal, and open ocean will enable an understanding of not only the global

transport but also the regional transport of PFASs. Nevertheless, check details it is imperative to examine the representativeness and suitability of wet precipitation Raf targets matrixes to allow for drawing conclusions on the transport PFASs. In this study, we collected wet precipitation samples

including rainfall, surface snow, and snow core from several locations in Japan to elucidate the suitability of these matrixes for describing local and regional transport of PFASs. Rain water collected at various time intervals within a single rainfall event showed high fluxes of PFASs in the first 1-mm deposition. The scavenging rate of PFASs by wet deposition varied depending on the fluorocarbon chain length of PFAS. The depositional fluxes of PFASs measured for continental (Tsukuba, Japan) and open ocean (Pacific Ocean, 1000 km off Japanese coast) locations were similar, on the order of a few nanograms per square meter. The PFAS profiles in “freshly” deposited and “aged” (deposited:on the ground for a few days) snow samples taken from the same location varied considerably. The freshly deposited snow represents current atmospheric profiles of PFASs, whereas the aged snow sample reflects sequestration of local sources of PFASs from the atmosphere. Post-depositional modifications in PFAS profiles were evident, suggesting reactions of PFASs on snow/ice surface. Transformation of precursor chemicals such as fluorotelomer alcohols into perfluoroalkylcarboxylates is evident on snow surface.


2]paracyclophanyldiazonium Stem Cell Compound Library fluoborate 2a through a heterolytic cleavage process gave products with partial racemization. In contrast, dediazoniation reactions of (S-p)-2a undergoing a nonheterolytic cleavage process afforded

products with retention of configuration. A key intermediate, the bromonium cation B, caused the racemization. The unexpected racemization allowed the mechanisms of the dediazoniation reaction to be probed.”
“Background and Purpose: Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery has been implemented recently in many laparoscopic (LAP) surgical procedures. We report our initial experience with LESS totally extraperitoneal (LESS-TEP) inguinal hernia repair in relation to conventional LAP-TEP.\n\nPatients and Methods: Between

November 2008 and May 2009, 25 LESS-TEP repairs of inguinal hernia and 29 LAP-TEP repairs of inguinal hernia were performed in 44 patients. Data regarding patient demographics, type of hernia, operative time, complications, postoperative hospital stay, and recurrence were prospectively collected and analyzed.\n\nResults: All 44 patients were men, aged 17 to 84 years. Of 44 men, 3 had bilateral inguinal hernias in the LESS-TEP group and 7 in the LAP-TEP group. The operative time for bilateral LESS-TEP was 60 +/- 15.3 min (range 40-70 min) and 40 +/- 21.6 min (range 20-100 min) for unilateral LESS-TEP, while for bilateral hernia LAP-TEP it was 60 +/- 24.8 min (range 40-100 min) and for unilateral LAP-TEP it was 50 +/- 14.2 min (range 40-80 min). Comparison of operative times in the LESS-TEP and LAP-TEP groups between the first and second half cohort resulted in significant CX-6258 research buy reduction of operative time in the second half of the LESS-TEP

group (P < 0.001). There were no intraoperative complications. Discharge was within 72 hours for most patients in both groups. There was one early recurrence (mesh displacement) during a median follow-up period of 11.5 +/- 2.5 months in the LESS-TEP group and no recurrences during the 11 +/- 1.6 months in the LAP-TEP group.\n\nConclusion: In our experience, LESS-TEP is a safe and feasible procedure with a short learning curve. In all analyzed parameters, it is comparable to conventional LAP-TEP. Further studies that compare LESS-TEP and conventional multiport LAP-TEP repairs with long-term follow-up evaluation are needed to confirm the initial experience.”
“Aim The study investigated whether autophagic activity and hypoxia parallel the adenomacarcinoma sequence. Method The study comprised 120 tubular adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, including 22 with questionable evidence of invasion, 37 with definite stromal invasion and 29 with severely dysplastic adenoma, 10 traditional serrated adenomas and 22 classical tubular adenomas lacking aggressive features. The samples were stained immunohistochemically for autophagy (LC3A and Beclin-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor1-alpha (HIF1) markers.

BIS, MLAEPs, haemodynamic parameters and propofol plasma concentr

BIS, MLAEPs, haemodynamic parameters and propofol plasma concentration were determined at various stages before, during and

after anaesthesia. During anaesthesia, BIS values were always maintained between 40 and 60.\n\nResults Anaesthesia significantly increased latency of Pa and Nb compared with when patients were awake (P<0.01). After extubation, the latency of Pa and Nb significantly decreased and basically returned to baseline level. BIS and latency of both Pa and Nb did not differ between groups. Also, the propofol induction dose (mean +/- SD: TCI, Selleck FK228 2.09 +/- 0.36 mg kg(-1); MCI, 2.06 +/- 0.16 mg kg(-1)) and total dose (TCI, 5.57 +/- 0.96 mg kg(-1) h(-1); MC, 5.79 +/- 0.87 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) and measured plasma propofol concentration during anaesthesia did not differ between groups. At 15 min after intubation, the mean predicted plasma concentration (2.2 +/- 0.2 mu g ml(-1)) differed significantly from the measured plasma concentration (2.8 +/- 1.2 mu g ml(-1)). No correlation was observed between predicted and measured

propofol plasma concentrations.\n\nConclusion Titration of propofol to achieve a comparable depth of anaesthesia results in comparable propofol consumption and recovery variables regardless of the type of propofol administration. Propofol GSK3326595 plasma concentration showed large interindividual variability. Eur J Anaesthesiol 26:928-935 (C) 2009 European Society of Anaesthesiology.”
“In tetrapods, the ability to ingest food on land is based on certain morphological features of the oropharynx in general and the feeding apparatus in particular. Recent paleoecological studies imply that terrestrial feeding has evolved secondarily in turtles, so they had to meet the morphological oropharyngeal requirements independently to other amniotes. This study is designed to improve our limited knowledge about the oropharyngeal morphology of tortoises by analyzing in detail the oropharynx in Manouria emys emys. Special emphasis is placed on the form and function of the tongue. Even if Manouria is considered a basal member of the only terrestrial turtle clade

and was hypothesized to have retained some features reflecting an aquatic ancestry, Manouria shows oropharyngeal characteristics found in more derived testudinids. Accordingly, the oropharyngeal cavity in Manouria is richly structured and the glands are large and complexly organized. The tongue is large and fleshy and bears numerous slender papillae lacking lingual muscles. The hyolingual skeleton is mainly cartilaginous, and the enlarged anterior elements support the tongue and provide insertion sides for the well-developed lingual muscles, which show striking differences to other reptiles. We conclude that the oropharyngeal design in Manouria differs clearly from semiaquatic and aquatic turtles, as well as from other reptilian sauropsids. J. Morphol.

Animals in the HF group showed decreased expression of PPAR, / an

Animals in the HF group showed decreased expression of PPAR, / and in WAT and BAT,

resulting in impaired glucose uptake and insufficient thermogenesis. Due to the improvement in the adipokine profile and enhanced insulin sensitivity with adequate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with telmisartan, the activation of all PPAR isoforms in WAT was beneficial. In BAT, telmisartan induced sustained sympathetic activation, because the (3)-adrenergic GKT137831 receptor was induced by PPAR/, while uncoupling protein1 was induced by PPAR to promote thermogenesis. Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects through higher pan-PPAR gene and protein expression. Upon PPAR, / and (pan-PPAR) agonism in adipose tissue of obese mice, telmisartan ameliorates inflammation and insulin resistance, as

well as inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. Our results point to new therapeutic targets for the control of obesity and comorbidities Selleckchem Duvelisib through pan-PPAR-related effects.”
“Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is the most common nephritis worldwide. We examined the effects of low- and high-dose telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, in rats with progressive anti-Thy1.1 mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a clinically relevant situation of established renal damage. Uninephrectomized nephritic rats were randomized on day 28 to remain untreated (control treatment; CT), or to receive low- (0.1 mg/kg/day, LT) or high-dose telmisartan (10 LY2835219 research buy mg/kg/day, HT), hydrochlorothiazide + hydralazine (8 + 32 mg/kg/day, HCT + H), or atenolol (100 mg/kg/day, AT). CT and LT rats were hypertensive, whereas HT, HCT + H and AT treatment normalized blood pressures.

On day 131, despite similar blood lowering effects, only HT, but not AT or HCT + H, prevented loss of renal function and reduced proteinuria compared to CT. Only HT potently ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, cortical matrix deposition, podocyte damage and macrophage infiltration. HT reduced cortical expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor- and – as well as transforming growth factor-1. LT exhibited minor but significant efficacy even in the absence of antihypertensive effects. Transcript array analyses revealed a four-fold down-regulation of renal cortical chemokine (CC motif) receptor 6 (CCR6) mRNA by HT, which was confirmed at the protein level. Silencing of CCR6 did not alter podocyte function in vitro, thus indicating a predominant role in the tubulo-interstitium. In human kidney biopsies, CCR6 mRNA and mRNA of its ligand chemokine (CC motif) ligand 20 was up-regulated in patients with progressive IgA nephropathy compared to stable disease. Thus, delayed treatment with high-dose telmisartan exerted a pronounced benefit in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, which extended beyond that of equivalent blood pressure lowering.


objective: The purposes of this paper are


objective: The purposes of this paper are to review: (1) the history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in sports, (2) the similarities and differences between historic and current definitions of CTE, (3) recent epidemiology and cohort studies of CTE and (4) controversies regarding the current CTE positions. Research design: Cilengitide ic50 Not applicable. Methods and procedures: Selective review of published articles relevant to CTE. Main outcome and results: The current definitions of CTE have evolved from its original definition and now rely heavily on the post-mortem detection of hyperphosphorylated tau for diagnosis. As of 2013, there is a blended cohort of 110 professional athletes diagnosed with CTE. It is being assumed that concussions and/or sub-concussive impacts in contact sports are the sole cause of CTE. Conclusions:

There are multiple causes of abnormal tau protein deposition in the human brain and the pathogenesis of CTE may not be related solely to concussion and/or sub-concussive injury. In all likelihood, the causes of CTE are a multivariate, as opposed to a univariate, phenomenon.”
“P>Low steady state haemoglobin oxygen saturation in selleck products patients with sickle cell anaemia has been associated with the degree of anaemia and haemolysis. How much pulmonary dysfunction contributes to low saturation is not clear. In a prospective study of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease aged 3-20 years at steady state and matched controls, 52% of 391 patients versus 24% of 63 controls had steady state oxygen saturation < 99% (P < 0 center dot 0001), 9% of patients versus no controls had saturation

< 95% (P = 0 center dot 008) and 8% of patients versus no controls had exercise-induced reduction in saturation >= 3%. Decreasing haemoglobin concentration (P < 0 center AZD5582 manufacturer dot 001) and increasing haemolysis (P < 0 center dot 003) but not pulmonary function tests were independent predictors of both lower steady-state saturation and exercise-induced reduction in saturation. Neither history of stroke nor history of acute chest syndrome was significantly associated with lower steady-state oxygen saturation or exercise-induced reduction in saturation. Tricuspid regurgitation velocity was higher in patients with lower steady state haemoglobin oxygen saturation (P = 0 center dot 003) and with greater decline in oxygen saturation during the six-minute walk (P = 0 center dot 022). In conclusion, lower haemoglobin oxygen saturation is independently associated with increasing degrees of anaemia and haemolysis but not pulmonary function abnormalities among children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.”
“The membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchanger 1 (AE1) works as a C1(-)/HCO(3)(-) antiporter This exchange is a key step for CO(2)/O(2) circulation in the blood.

A dual sugar challenge test could prove useful to identify indivi

A dual sugar challenge test could prove useful to identify individuals at risk for carbohydrate-induced dyslipidemia and other adverse effects of increased DNL. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: 861-868, 2011)”
“Background-Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia. Fibrosis can be reflected in circulating matrix remodeling protein concentrations. We explored differences in circulating markers of extracellular matrix turnover between

young HCM patients with versus without history of serious arrhythmia.\n\nMethods and Results-Using multiplexed and single ELISA, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 3, find more and 9; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 4; and collagen I carboxyterminal peptide (CICP) were measured in plasma from 45 young HCM PLX3397 cell line patients (80% male patients; median age, 17 years [interquartile range, 15-20]). Participants were grouped into serious ventricular arrhythmia history (VA) versus no ventricular arrhythmia history (NoVA). Differences in MMPs between groups

were examined nonparametrically. Relationships between MMPs and ventricular arrhythmia were assessed with linear regression, adjusted for interventricular septal thickness, family history of sudden death, abnormal exercise blood pressure, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator EPZ-6438 cell line (ICD). In post hoc sensitivity analysis, age was substituted for ICD. The 14 VA patients were older than 31 NoVA patients (median, 19 versus 17 years; P=0.03). All 14 VA and 12 NoVA patients had an ICD. MMP3 concentration was significantly higher in the VA

group (VA median, 12.9 mu g/mL [interquartile range, 5.7-16.7 mu g/mL] versus NoVA, 5.8 mu g/mL [interquartile range, 3.7-10.0 mu g/mL]; P=0.01). On multivariable analysis, VA was independently associated with increasing MMP3 (standardized beta, 0.37; P=0.01). Post hoc adjustment for age attenuated this association.\n\nConclusions-Circulating MMP3 may be a marker of ventricular arrhythmia in adolescent patients with HCM. Because of our role as pediatric providers, we cannot exclude age-related confounding. (Circ Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 462-466.)”
“Poliovirus is the most extensively studied member of the order Picornavirales, which contains numerous medical, veterinary and agricultural pathogens. The picornavirus genome encodes a single polyprotein that is divided into three regions: P1, P2 and P3. P3 proteins are known to participate more directly in genome replication, for example by containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3Dpol), among several other proteins and enzymes. We will review recent data that provide new insight into the structure, function and mechanism of P3 proteins and their complexes, which are required for initiation of genome replication.

Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and

Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of ) shrimp fed diet with B. subtilis (T1), and ii) shrimp fed diet mixed with B. subtilis and commercial probiotic (T2). Control groups were consisted of ) shrimp fed diet ACY-738 with commercial probiotic as positive control, and ii) shrimp fed unaltered diet as negative control. Results showed that B. subtilis was proliferated in digestive tract of treated shrimps, and the number of Vibrio spp. was reduced in digestive tract during the cultural period. Survival rate, 75.5 +/- 4.62%, and yields of shrimps, 190.00 +/- 13.13 g, treated with B. subtilis were significantly greater (P<0.05) than the

other treated and control groups. Also population density of total viable bacteria and B. subtilis counted in digestive tract of shrimps treated with B. subtilis were significantly higher (P<0.05) than

the other treated groups. Results of this study P005091 manufacturer indicate that the addition of B. subtilis can improve shrimp (L. vannamei) survival rate and yield.”
“Methamphetamine (MP) is a widely abused psychostimulant. There are currently no FDA approved pharmacotherapies for the MP addict. The antidepressant, mirtazapine (Mirt) is a high affinity antagonist at several monoaminergic receptors that are affected by MP. This study evaluated the potential of Mirt as a therapeutic agent for MP addiction and described associated changes in neuronal signaling.\n\nA single pairing conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was utilized as a behavioral measure of MP-induced effects. Rats learned to associate unique environmental cues with the effects of 1.0 mg/kg (i.p.) MP (day 1) or saline (day 2). Mirt (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) was given in the home cage on day 3 and CPP was assessed on day 4. To evaluate signaling events that correlate with this behavior, brain tissue of these rats were dissected for immunoblot assays of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a transcriptional regulator,

cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) after the CPP test.\n\nDuring the CPP test, rats conditioned with MP spent more time in the environment associated with MP. Importantly, GSI-IX manufacturer rats given Mirt did not express CPP. MP-induced CPP was associated with a decrease in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the ventral tegmental area, and decreased phosphorylated ERK and pCREB in the nucleus accumbens and treatment with Mirt did not reverse these changes. No changes in signaling proteins were obtained from rats similarly treated with MP and Mirt. Without exposure to cues of the conditioning paradigm.\n\nOverall, a post-conditioning treatment with Mirt call nullify MP-induced associative learning. However, additional studies are needed to ascertain the molecular events underlying this effect of Mirt. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

(J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125:209-16 )”
“In plant cells,

(J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125:209-16.)”
“In plant cells, boron (B) occurs predominantly as a borate ester associated with rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), but the function of this B-RG-II complex has yet to be investigated. 3-Deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO) is a specific component monosaccharide of RG-II. Mutant

plants defective in KDO biosynthesis are expected to have altered RG-II structure, and would be useful for studying the physiological function of the B-RG-II complex. Here, we characterized Arabidopsis CTP:KDO cytidylyltransferase (CMP-KDO synthetase; CKS), the enzyme activating KDO as a nucleotide sugar prior to its incorporation into RG-II. Our analyses localized the Arabidopsis CKS protein to mitochondria. The Arabidopsis CKS gene occurs as a single-copy gene in the genome, and we could not obtain cks null mutants Epigenetic inhibitor supplier from T-DNA insertion selleck products lines. Analysis using +/cks heterozygotes in the quartet1 background demonstrated that the cks mutation rendered pollen infertile through

the inhibition of pollen tube elongation. These results suggest that KDO is an indispensable component of RG-II, and that the complete B-RG-II complex is essential for the cell wall integrity of rapidly growing tissues.”
“To describe the surgical outcomes and operative technique for reconstructing catheter-induced urethral erosion in men with a neurogenic bladder.\n\nThis buy SN-38 was a prospective study of 11 men (median age 45 years, range 26-52) who had elective urethroplasty for urethral erosion between 2004 and 2007 by one surgeon (C.M.G.). All men had a diagnosis of neurogenic bladder and indwelling catheter-induced urethral erosion. Reconstructive techniques included primary closure in

six men, substitution urethroplasty with a penile skin graft in three, penile skin flap in one and a buccal mucosa graft in one. A two-stage approach was used in one man.\n\nThe median (range) length of erosion from the meatus before surgery was 6 (4-10) cm. The repair was successful in seven men at a mean (range) follow-up of 25 (8-46) months. Of those with recurrence of erosion, the median length of the resultant defect was 2 (2-3) cm. All recurrences were in the first five patients of this series. The median time to recurrence of erosion was 1 month and recurrence did not appear to be related to any particular surgical technique. Urethral catheter traction after surgery appeared to be one of the factors related to repair breakdown.\n\nThe reconstruction of catheter-induced urethral erosion in men with a neurogenic bladder is feasible. Primary closure appears to be the best reconstructive method for urethral erosion, and avoiding catheter traction after surgery contributes to successful urethroplasty.”
“Modern density functionals were assessed for the calculation of magnetic exchange constants of academic hydrogen oligomer systems.