These ones can be used to implement monitoring methodologies during beer production, such as to the monitoring of raw material
quality. The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support and for fellowships to G.A.S., F.A. and R.J.P., and Prof. Carol Collins for language assistance. “
“The publisher regrets that the second part of Table 1 of this paper was omitted from the final published version of the article. The full Table 1 appears AZD5363 mw reprinted below. The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“The Brazilian coast has a large diversity of fish species, of which approximately 130 have some commercial value. Fish are usually processed before their commercialisation, thus generating
large amounts of waste, which is usually discarded in the environment without any previous treatment, causing serious pollution problems. According to Bezerra et al. (2005), fish viscera are rich in peptidases, which are enzymes that occur naturally in all organisms and are involved in a variety of physiological and biotechnological processes. Due to the diverse feeding habits of fish in general, differences in characteristics and composition of their enzymes are expected. Therefore, studies describing enzymes isolated from these animals represent the first step to evaluate their potential for technological application. In fact, to save Baricitinib time and money, experiments at laboratory conditions are essential CX-5461 ic50 for future production in industrial scale. Peptidases are amongst the most important groups of commercial enzymes, representing
up to 60% of enzymes marketed in the world. In the digestive tract of fish, one of the main peptidases is trypsin (EC 18.104.22.168), a serinopeptidase that cleaves peptide bonds at the carboxy end of the amino acid residues arginine and lysine. This enzyme plays a key role in the digestion of dietary proteins and is also responsible for the activation of trypsinogen and other zymogens (Polgár, 2005). Recently, many studies have reported the use of common and simple chromatographic procedures on the purification of trypsin isoforms from various fish species, such as Colossoma macropomum ( Bezerra et al., 2001 and Marcuschi et al., 2010), Oreochromis niloticus ( Bezerra et al., 2005), Gadus macrocephalus ( Fuchise et al., 2009), Theragra chalcogramma ( Kishimura, Klomklao, Benjakul, & Chun, 2008) and Katswonus pelanis ( Klomklao, Kishimura, Nonami, & Benjakul, 2009). These protocols proved to be efficient in purifying fish trypsins in a few steps, and are of relative low cost, being easily adapted to industrial scale and affording between 1 and 3 g of purified trypsin per 1 kg of wet waste.