We find good agreement between the experimentally measured bandga

We find good agreement between the experimentally measured bandgaps and theoretically modeled curves. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3213376]“

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children has been associated with a systemic circulating permeability factor. Therefore, once peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been started, peritoneal protein losses should be higher in the nephrotic than in the non-nephrotic population.

Objective: We compared peritoneal protein losses in children with and without NS on PD.

Methods: Our retrospective 4-year BAY 63-2521 purchase study analyzed Hispanic patients with NS under PD. Data at dialysis entry and 6 months later were compared. Nutritional support was given according to recommended dietary allowances and recommendations from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained, and 24-hour dialysate and urine samples were collected to measure protein losses. Dialysis dose (Kt/V), daily protein intake (DPI), normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA), peritoneal equilibration test (PET), and peritonitis rate were determined. All measurements took place at least 4 weeks after resolution

of a peritonitis episode. All patients received automated PD using a HomeChoice PD System cycler (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA), with an exchange volume of 1100 mL/m(2) and YM155 a dextrose concentration of 1.5% 2.5%. A control group of non-NS children on PD matched by age and sex were also studied. Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. Differences between groups were calculated using

the Mann-Whitney U-test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Each study group consisted of 10 patients [NS patients: 4 boys, mean age of 7.3 +/- 4.1 SNX-5422 order years; control patients: 6 boys, mean age of 7.2 +/- 4.7 years (p = nonsignificant)]. In the group with NS, 8 patients were diagnosed by biopsy as having focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and 2 as having minimal-change disease. At study entry, patients with NS had hourly urinary protein losses of 398 +/- 313 mg/m(2) and daily peritoneal protein losses of 3.4 +/- 1.9 g/m(2), compared with 29.9 +/- 31 mg/m(2) and 1.5 +/- 1.1 g/m(2) respectively in the control group (p < 0.05). The same statistical difference was found 6 months later. We observed no statistical differences in PET results, daily exchange volume, and mean dextrose concentration of dialysate. Similarly, no significant between-group differences were observed for Kt/V, DPI, nPNA, and biochemical parameters.

Conclusions: Hispanic children with NS on PD show higher peritoneal protein losses than do their control counterparts. Such differences could be secondary to increased peritoneal permeability caused by a systemic permeability factor.

The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD;

The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) and the content of the lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) were determined as biomarkers of oxidative click here stress

in E. fetida. Moreover, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used as a biomarker of genotoxicity. The results showed that triclosan induced a significant increase (P < 0.05) in antioxidative enzyme activities and MDA content. Of all of the biomarkers examined, CAT activity was most sensitive to TCS, and the CAT activity increased significantly (P < 0.05) at bactericidal concentrations of 7.86 ng cm-2 in the contact test and 10 mg kg-1 in the spiked soil test. The comet assay showed that TCS treatments significantly induced (P < 0.05) DNA damage in E. fetida, and

that 78.6 ng cm-2 caused significant genotoxic effects in the acute test (48 h). Clear dose-dependent DNA damage selleck compound to E. fetida was observed both in contact and spiked soil tests. These results imply that TCS may have potential biochemical and genetic toxicity toward earthworms (E. fetida). A battery of biomarkers covering multiple molecular targets of acute toxicity can be combined to better understand the impacts of TCS on E. fetida. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of migraine in the general Spanish population and its association with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, self-reported health status, and co-morbidity with other conditions. We analyzed data obtained from adults aged 16 years or older (n = 29,478) who participated in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), an ongoing, home-based personal interview which examines a nation-wide representative sample of PRIMA-1MET order civilian non-institutionalized population residing in main family dwellings (household)

of Spain. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, marital status, educational level, occupational status, and monetary monthly income); self-perceived health status; lifestyle habits (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, sleep habit, physical exercise, and obesity); and presence of other concomitant diseases. The 1-year prevalence of diagnosed migraine (n = 3,433) was 11.02% (95% CI 10.55-11.51). The prevalence was significantly higher among female (15.94%) than male (5.91%) and showed the highest value in the 31-50 years age group (12.11%). Migraine was more common in those of lower income (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41) and who sleep < 8 h/day (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Furthermore, worse health status (AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.76-2.36) and depression (AOR 1.82 95% CI 1.58-2.11) were related to migraine. Finally, subjects with migraine were significantly more likely to have comorbid conditions, particularly chronic (more than 6 month of duration) neck pain (AOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.98-2.68) and asthma (AOR 1.62, 95% 1.27-2.05).

After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-trainin

After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students’ performance in pre-training evaluation was given

only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test).

Results: No skills MAPK Inhibitor Library mouse difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 +/- 7.3 vs. 68.1 +/- 12.2 in C group) at post-test (p < 0.001). In all retention-test, better skills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup.

Conclusions: Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘is the saphenous vein graft or right

gastroepiploic artery a better conduit for BIX 01294 in vitro revascularization of the right coronary artery?’ One hundred and five articles were found using a designated search, of which 10 articles were found to represent the best available evidence to answer the clinical question. Of these 10 articles, two were reports of a randomized controlled trial and represented the highest level of evidence, whereas eight articles were retrospective observational studies. All were published between 2002 and 2012. Outcome measures varied considerably, but mostly included graft patency at varying periods of follow-up. The randomized evidence suggested

that the saphenous vein had better early (6-month) and mid-term (3-year) graft patency than the right gastroepiploic Selleck SBE-β-CD artery when used for right coronary artery revascularization. The use of the saphenous vein was also found to be predictive of superior graft function using multivariate regression; however, a more recent propensity score analysis identified gastroepiploic-right coronary grafts to yield superior very long-term (>10 years) clinical outcomes. Overall, based on the best quality evidence and in view of technical limitations and flow characteristics of the right gastroepiploic artery, it appears that saphenous vein grafts may offer superior outcomes for revascularization of the right coronary artery in most cases, and should be preferentially used.”
“Background and objective: Sleep-disordered breathing is known to be associated with impairment in cognitive function.

29) No other associations between the changes of the rest of Fe,

29). No other associations between the changes of the rest of Fe, Zn, and Cu parameters with the changes of any of the metabolic and inflammation parameters were observed.

RYGBP produced significant weight and fat mass losses, with improvement of metabolic and inflammation parameters. Iron, zinc, and copper status were impaired after the surgery.”
“In this study, the thermo-viscous properties of the linseed oil modified with

pentaerythritol were measured with a rheometer and modeled by several equations. Results showed that the linseed oils generally appeared as either Newtonian fluid in the non-zero shear region, or shear thinning near the zero shear. The Cross and Ellis models can fit this property, whose zero shear viscosity and infinite shear

viscosity www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html www.selleckchem.com/screening-libraries.html showed a positive correlation with the pentaerythritol dosage. It was believed that the shear thinning of the linseed oils was attributed to the chain entanglement. Based on the authors’ formula for the temperature dependence of the viscosity, novel two-dimensional thermal-viscous models for the linseed oil were constructed as functions of temperature and shear rate/stress. These models quantitatively characterize the thermo-viscous property of the linseed oil, and form an advanced base for further rheological study and industrial application in the production and process control about the linseed oil. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To investigate pregnancy and labour outcomes in grand and great grand multiparous women.

Study design. A retrospective

population-based OSI-744 molecular weight study was conducted between the years 1988 and 2007. Parturients were classified into three groups: multiparous; 2-5 deliveries, grand multiparous; 6-9 deliveries, and great grand multiparous; 10+ deliveries. Stratified analyses included multiple logistic regression models.

Results. A significant linear association was found between parity and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes such as malpresentation, labour dystocia, caesarean delivery, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal anaemia (HB<10), congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Using multivariable logistic regression models, grand multiparity was found an independent risk factor for labour dystocia, first stage (OR=1.5, P<0.001), and perinatal mortality (OR=2.0, P<0.001). Great grand multiparity was found an independent risk factor for labour dystocia, first stage (OR=2.6, P<0.001), labour dystocia, second stage (OR=2.1, P<0.001), and perinatal mortality (OR=2.5, P<0.001).

Conclusion. Women with high birth order are at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes. The risk is higher for great grand multiparous women compared to grand multiparous women. Grand and great grand multiparity are independent risk factors for labour dystocia and perinatal mortality.

Logistic regression analysis and the Fisher exact test were used

Logistic regression analysis and the Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Sensitivity, specifi city, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive likelihood ratio were calculated. To assess interobserver agreement, a kappa statistic was used.

Results: The positive predictive value of surface irregularities larger than 2 mm for MR tendinopathy or a partial- or fullthickness tear was CCI-779 90% (37 of 41 patients). The sensitivity of radiographic changes was 40%; the specifi city, 94%; the accuracy, 61%; the negative predictive value, 49%; and the positive likelihood

ratio, 5.8. Interobserver agreement for detection of trochanteric surface irregularities on conventional radiographs ranged from 0.28 to 0.76.

Conclusion: Pronounced (>2 mm) surface irregularities of the greater trochanter on conventional radiographs were associated

with abductor tendon MR abnormalities. selleck kinase inhibitor (C)RSNA, 2010″
“Paris polyphylla var. chinensis is a perennial herb with medicinal properties that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, this plant has been on the edge of extinction during the last few decades because of excessive deforestation based on the intense ethnopharmaceutical interest. We isolated 12 microsatellite loci from a (CT)(n)-enriched genomic library of P. polyphylla var. chinensis. The polymorphism at each locus was analyzed by screening 30 individuals from a natural population. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.467, with a mean of 0.247, and from 0.383 to 0.662 with a mean of 0.537, respectively. Six loci (Pp1, Pp3, Pp6, Pp7, Pp9, and Pp12) were found to significantly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This may be due to the small population size, inbreeding or null alleles. Five

of the pairwise comparisons (Pp1 and Pp4, Pp2 and Pp5, Pp2 and Pp9, Pp2 and Pp12, Pp11 and Pp12) exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium (P < 0.05). We conclude that these microsatellite markers will be useful for population genetic studies of P. polyphylla var. chinensis.”
“We investigate the electro-optic learn more properties and high-frequency relative dielectric constants of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) and polycrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) films in a high-frequency range of up to 40 GHz for designing a high-speed ferroelectric thin-film modulator. We also demonstrate a ferroelectric thin-film Mach-Zehnder-type waveguide modulator using the epitaxially grown PLZT film. The use of a composite structure with a low dielectric coefficient substrate and a buffer layer enabled of a ferroelectric thin-film waveguide modulator with 40-Gb/s operation. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

18 g/L, ammonium ferrous sulfate 0 08 g/L, dipotassium hydrogen p

18 g/L, ammonium ferrous sulfate 0.08 g/L, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.25 g/L, magnesium sulfate 0.75 g/L, beef extract 1.53 g/L, L-tryptophan 0.74 g/L, soluble starch 13.0 g/L, 25 mL medium in a 250 mL flask, with an inoculum size of 10% (v/v). 1.62 g/L crude violacein was achieved using the optimized conditions after 32 h of cultivation. This proved to be much higher than any other violacein-producing strains so far reported. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“NiMn is an interesting material for achieving a high exchange bias

in spin valve systems. We investigated the influence of a nano-oxide layer (NOL) inserted in the pinned Co layer on the magnetotransport properties of NiMn/Co/Cu/Co spin valve sensors. The samples were annealed at 350 degrees C for 10 min to achieve the antiferromagnetic L1(0) ordered structure of JNJ-26481585 concentration NiMn. The NOL has been characterized

by small angle x-ray reflectivity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy filtered TEM. The inclusion of the NOL leads to an increase in the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) by 20 % indicating a high degree of specular reflection at the NOL. For NOL positions close to the NiMn/Co interface, a decrease in the exchange bias field (H(ex)) is observed. The best buy AZD9291 combination of high GMR value and large Hex was found when the NOL was inserted in the center of the pinned Co layer. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3407569]“
“Background and Selleckchem Belnacasan aims: Although Eskimos were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), state health data show a large proportion of deaths from CVD, despite

traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. This article explores CVD prevalence and its relation to risk factors in Alaska Eskimos.

Methods and results: A population-based cohort of 499 Alaska Eskimos > age 45 from the Norton Sound region was examined in 2000-2004 for CVD and associated risk factors as part of the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives study. CVD and atherosclerosis were evaluated and adjudicated using standardized methods. Average age was 58 years; diabetes prevalence was low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were high, but a large proportion smoked and had high pathogen burden. CVD was higher in men (12.6%) than in women (5.3%) (prevalence ratio 2.4, CI 1.3-4.4). Rates of stroke (6.1% in men, 1.8% in women) were similar to those for coronary heart disease (CHD) (6.1% men, 2.5% women). MI prevalence was low in both genders (1.9% and 0.7%). CVD was higher in men and in those >60 years. Hypertension, diabetes, high LDL-C, high apoB, and low HDL-C were all strong correlates (<.002) and albuminuria and CRP were also correlated with CVD (p < .05) after adjustment for age and gender. Carotid atherosclerosis was correlated with CVD (p = .0079) independent of other risk factors.

Animals-1,179 crossbred beef bull (n = 588) and steer (591) calve

Animals-1,179 crossbred beef bull (n = 588) and steer (591) calves included in 4 experiments at 2 University of Arkansas research facilities.

Procedures-Calves underwent processing and treatments in accordance with the experiment in which they were enrolled. Castration statu and values of CBC variables were determined at the time of arrival at the facilities. Calves were monitored to detect signs of BRD during a 42-day period.

Results-The areas

under the receiving operator MLN8237 purchase characteristic curves for CBC variables with significant contrast test results ranged from 0.51 (neutrophil count) to 0.67 (eosinophil count), indicating they were limited predictors of BRD in calves. The only CBC variables that had significant associations with BRD in calves as determined via multivariable logistic regression analysis were eosinophil and RBC counts. The odds of BRD for bulls were 3.32 times the odds of BRD for steers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study indicated that low eosinophil and high RBC counts in blood samples may be useful for identification of calves with a high risk for development of BRD. Further research may be warranted to AS1842856 nmr validate these variables for prediction of BRD in calves. Calves that were bulls at the time of arrival had a higher risk of BIRD, versus calves that were steers at that time.”
“Epigenetic marking on genes can determine whether or not genes

are expressed. Epigenetic regulation is mediated by the addition of methyl groups to DNA cytosine bases, of methyl and acetyl groups to proteins (histones) around which DNA is wrapped, and by small interfering SBE-β-CD RNA molecules. Some components of epigenetic regulation have evolved to permit control of whether maternal or paternal genes are expressed. The epigenetic imprinting of IGF2 expression is an example of maternal

and paternal epigenetic marking that modulates fetal growth and fetal size. However, epigenetic regulation also permits the fetus and the infant to adapt gene expression to the environment in which it is growing; sometimes when this adjustment goes awry, the risk of chronic disease is increased. Recent progress in the understanding of nutritional influences on epigenetics suggests that nutrients that are part of methyl-group metabolism can significantly influence epigenetics. During critical periods in development, dietary methyl-group intake (choline, methionine, and folate) can alter DNA and histone methylation, which results in lifelong changes in gene expression. In rodent models, pregnant dams that were fed diets high in methionine, folic acid, and choline produced offspring with different coat colors or with kinked tails. A number of syndromes in humans can be caused by defective epigenetic regulation, including Rett syndrome. There are interesting examples of the effects of nutrition in early life that result in altered health in adults, and some of these could be the result of altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

Similar results were observed if the response data are generated

Similar results were observed if the response data are generated from a discrete multinomial distribution with support on (0,1).

Conclusions: The linear regression model, the variable-dispersion beta regression model and the fractional logit regression model all perform well across the simulation experiments under consideration. When employing beta regression to estimate covariate effects Saracatinib supplier on (0,1) response data, researchers should ensure their dispersion sub-model is properly specified, else inferential errors could arise.”
“After the triptans, a calcitonin gene-related peptide blocker (telcagepant) is the first acute medicine that has been developed

primarily for treatment of acute migraine. Otherwise, the new drugs have been developed first for other purposes,

like anticonvulsants, antihypertensives and antidepressants used for migraine prophylaxis. For acute attacks, a new way to administer a traditional drug like dihydroergotamine is under way, and documentation of efficacy in migraine has been gained for some commonly used painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, and for some herbal extracts. Based on insights into the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorder, some drugs have been developed which seem promising in early phase II studies (NOS inhibitors and 5HT1F-receptor agonists). In the future, development and enhancements of existing medicines must be accompanied by increased efforts to develop truly new migraine drugs based on knowledge of the pathophysiology if one wishes to reduce substantially GSK1838705A concentration the great burden migraine poses on patients and society.”
“BACKGROUND: Because of its extreme toxicity for microorganisms, the limonene

content of citrus wastes (CWs) has been a major obstacle to the conversion of CWs to biofuels. The main objective of this study was to develop a new process for the utilization of CWs that can be economically feasible when the supply of CW is low.

RESULTS: Steam explosion pre-treatment was applied to improve the anaerobic digestibility of CWs, resulting in a decrease of initial limonene concentration by 94.3%. A methane www.selleckchem.com/products/mk-5108-vx-689.html potential of 0.537 +/- 0.001 m(3) kg(-1) VS (volatile solids) was obtained during the following batch digestion of treated CWs, corresponding to an increase of 426% compared with that of the untreated samples. Long-term effects of the treatment were further investigated by a semi-continuous co-digestion process. A methane production of 0.555 +/- 0.0159 m(3) CH(4) kg(-1) VS day(-1) was achieved when treated CWs (corresponding to 30% of the VS load) were co-digested with municipal solid waste.

CONCLUSION: The process developed can easily be applied to an existing biogas plant. The equipment cost for this process is estimated to be one million USD when utilizing 10 000 tons CWs year(-1). 8.4 L limonene and 107.4 m(3) methane can be produced per ton of fresh citrus wastes in this manner.

This is to avoid any loss of correction, implants mobilization, a

This is to avoid any loss of correction, implants mobilization, and proximal hyperkyphosis.”
“A fatal case of primary amoebic encephalitis (PAM) in a 20 year old boy, a proven case of acute leukemic leukemia (ALL) type L2, in remission is described. No history of swimming could be elicited. The clinical presentation, the isolation of the amoeba from the cerebrospinal www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0994.html fluid (CSF), the poor response to amphotericin B, and the ultimately fatal outcome are all consistent with the diagnosis of PAM. On the basis of its ability to

grow at temperature 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, morphology of trophozoite, and the presence of flagellate forms in CSF, the amoeba was identified as Naegleria

fowleri. Other drugs used in combination with amphotericin B are tetracycline, rifampicin, and miconazole. A possibility of PAM should always be considered in all cases of acute purulent meningoencephalitis in which no bacteria or fungus are found.”
“Purpose We assessed the ability of bispectral index (BIS) to predict clinical outcome (dead or alive within 2 weeks).

Methods In total, 90 coma patients with severe brain injuries underwent BIS monitoring, and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein levels were assayed within the first 3 days of admission. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the performance of BIS values for predicting Ofev death within 2 weeks. A cutoff value was calculated using the Youden index.

Results A significant negative correlation was found between BIS value and serum NSE and S100 levels. The area under the curve for BIS value was 0.841 (p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.751-0.931), and higher than for NSE (0.713) (p = 0.002, 95 % CI = 0.582-0.844) or this website S100 (0.790) (p < 0.001, 95 % CI = 0.680-0.899). The optimal cutoff of BIS was 32.5. Serum NSE and S100

protein levels and the mortality rate were significantly lower in patients with a BIS value >32.5 than in patients with a BIS value <= 32.5.

Conclusions Bispectral index values may reflect degree of brain injury, and BIS is an objective and noninvasive monitoring method for helping clinicians to predict death in patients with a BIS value <= 32.5.”
“Purpose Vertebroplasty and more recently kyphoplasty are recognized as techniques in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and in case of pathological fracture like in secondary tumors. The recent introduction of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that offers, at least theoretically, an osteointegrative capacity, absent in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), has generated interest for its use in the treatment of traumatic fractures (type A) even in young patients.

Methods In this study, type A fractures without neurological signs were treated.

The results show that the physical properties of the treated wool

The results show that the physical properties of the treated wool fabrics were changed with microwave irradiation time and power. The chemical structure had not significant change. The surface morphological structure, the concentration of cystine SAS bonds and crystallinity of the treated wool were changed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 944-952, 2011″
“Accurate semen analysis

is critical for decisions about U0126 solubility dmso patient care, as well as for studies addressing overall changes in semen quality, contraceptive efficacy and effects of toxicant exposure. The standardization of semen analysis is very difficult for many reasons, including the use of subjective techniques Combretastatin A4 purchase with no standards for comparison, poor technician training, problems with proficiency testing and a reluctance to change techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) Semen handbook (2010) offers a vastly improved set of standardized procedures, all at a level of detail that will preclude most misinterpretations. However, there is a limit to what can be learned from words and pictures alone. A WHO-produced DVD that offers complete demonstrations of each technique

along with quality assurance standards for motility, morphology and concentration assessments would enhance the effectiveness of the manual. However, neither the manual nor a DVD will help unless there is general acknowledgement of the critical need to standardize techniques and rigorously pursue quality control to ensure that laboratories actually perform techniques ‘according to WHO’ instead

of merely reporting that they have done so. Unless improvements are made, patient results will continue to be compromised and comparison between studies and laboratories will have limited merit.”
“In order to study the chemical selleck compound interaction during interface formation between Pd and SiC, Pd layers of various thicknesses were deposited on structurally disordered SiC surfaces at 800 degrees C. The Pd/SiC interface, which plays a crucial role for many applications such as high power electronic devices and tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) nuclear fuels, was studied in situ by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that after Pd deposition, Si-C and Si-Si bonds are broken in favor of the formation of not only Pd-Si but also Pd-C bonds. In addition, various silicon oxycarbide bonds are observed at the SiC surface and the Pd/SiC interface. These results are not only of relevance for the long-term stability of TRISO fuels but also for a variety of other applications, including Schottky-barrier-type contacts in electronic devices. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.