We find good agreement between the experimentally measured bandgaps and theoretically modeled curves. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3213376]“
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children has been associated with a systemic circulating permeability factor. Therefore, once peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been started, peritoneal protein losses should be higher in the nephrotic than in the non-nephrotic population.
Objective: We compared peritoneal protein losses in children with and without NS on PD.
Methods: Our retrospective 4-year BAY 63-2521 purchase study analyzed Hispanic patients with NS under PD. Data at dialysis entry and 6 months later were compared. Nutritional support was given according to recommended dietary allowances and recommendations from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained, and 24-hour dialysate and urine samples were collected to measure protein losses. Dialysis dose (Kt/V), daily protein intake (DPI), normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA), peritoneal equilibration test (PET), and peritonitis rate were determined. All measurements took place at least 4 weeks after resolution
of a peritonitis episode. All patients received automated PD using a HomeChoice PD System cycler (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA), with an exchange volume of 1100 mL/m(2) and YM155 a dextrose concentration of 1.5% 2.5%. A control group of non-NS children on PD matched by age and sex were also studied. Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. Differences between groups were calculated using
the Mann-Whitney U-test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Each study group consisted of 10 patients [NS patients: 4 boys, mean age of 7.3 +/- 4.1 SNX-5422 order years; control patients: 6 boys, mean age of 7.2 +/- 4.7 years (p = nonsignificant)]. In the group with NS, 8 patients were diagnosed by biopsy as having focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and 2 as having minimal-change disease. At study entry, patients with NS had hourly urinary protein losses of 398 +/- 313 mg/m(2) and daily peritoneal protein losses of 3.4 +/- 1.9 g/m(2), compared with 29.9 +/- 31 mg/m(2) and 1.5 +/- 1.1 g/m(2) respectively in the control group (p < 0.05). The same statistical difference was found 6 months later. We observed no statistical differences in PET results, daily exchange volume, and mean dextrose concentration of dialysate. Similarly, no significant between-group differences were observed for Kt/V, DPI, nPNA, and biochemical parameters.
Conclusions: Hispanic children with NS on PD show higher peritoneal protein losses than do their control counterparts. Such differences could be secondary to increased peritoneal permeability caused by a systemic permeability factor.