Hemolymph (100 µL) was collected from both treated and control gr

Hemolymph (100 µL) was collected from both treated and control groups and centrifuged at 800 g for 5 mins (Model GS-15R, Rotor No. F2402; Beckman, Fullerton, CA, USA). After centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded, the hemocytes washed three times with Hank’s buffered salt solution and then stained with NBT solution (0.3%, 100 µL) for 30 mins at 37°C. The staining reaction was terminated by removing the NBT solution and adding absolute methanol. After three washings with 70% methanol, the hemocytes were air dried and 120 µL of 2-M KOH and 140 µL of DMSO added to dissolve cytoplasmic formazan. The optical density of the dissolved formazan was

read at 630 nm. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activities assays were performed according to the methods described by Gestal

et al. [23]. Briefly, ALP and ACP were measured using p-nitro phenyl phosphate https://www.selleckchem.com/autophagy.html 16 mM as a standard substrate. Glycine NaOH buffer and sodium acetate buffer were used for ALP and ACP assays, respectively. Palbociclib supplier Mixtures containing 0.2 mL of the substrate and 50 µL of hemolymph were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. Released p-nitrophenol in the resulting supernatants was measured at 410 nm and the amount calculated from the standard curve. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was performed to identify significant differences among experimental groups at each sampling time using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). For statistically significant differences, an α value of < 0.05 (P < 0.05) was required. Linear regression analysis (comparison

between biochemical and immune variables and salinity of WSSV-challenged hemolymph of F. indicus) was performed to analyze WSSV infection and the influence of each salinity concentration. The unchallenged control F. indicus kept in 25 g/L survived. Mortality began at 24 hrs in the challenged shrimp kept in 5 and 35 g/L. Over L-NAME HCl 24–96 hrs, the cumulative mortality of F. indicus maintained in 5 and 35 g/L was significantly higher than that of shrimp kept in 25 and 15 g/L (P < 0.05). At 72 hrs pi, the cumulative mortality of challenged F. indicus maintained in 25 g/L was the lowest among the experimental groups, whereas the cumulative mortality of the challenged F. indicus transferred to 5 g/L was the highest among the four treatments. No mortality was recorded in any of the unchallenged groups during the experimental period. In WSSV challenged animals, mortality increased in parallel with sampling time. For all salinity concentrations except for 25 g/L salinity, the mortality rates ranged from 63.3 ± 3.3% (15 g/L) to 83.3 ± 3.3% (5 g/L). From the start of the experiment (24th hour), animals exposed to 5 g/L salinity had a mortality of 53.3 ± 3.3%. However, animals at 25 g/L showed a comparatively lower mortality rate after infection with WSSV (Table 1). Total hemolymph protein concentration increased significantly at 48 and 72 hrs pi (P < 0.

For the treatment of Class III or Class IV LN, alone or in combin

For the treatment of Class III or Class IV LN, alone or in combination with Class V features, members of the ALNN agreed on the following: It is important to expedite the investigative and diagnostic process to aim for starting treatment early, since delay of effective selleck compound treatment implies continuous attrition of nephron mass, renal reserve, and a negative impact on renal survival. Initial (induction) treatment should be combination immunosuppression comprising high-dose corticosteroids

and an immunosuppressive agent. The latter can be intravenous pulse CYC, MMF, or oral CYC for a limited duration, and the choice Selleckchem Tamoxifen takes into consideration cost, compliance, geographical access, and reimbursement policy. The duration of this ‘induction’ phase lasts four to six months. There was consensus that intravenous pulse corticosteroid treatment, at a dose of 250–1000 mg methylprednisolone daily for three days, should be administered to patients with crescentic involvement of 10% or more of the glomeruli

on renal biopsy, or those with deteriorating renal function attributed to the nephritic process. There were diverse opinions on the use of pulse corticosteroid in patients with lesser degrees of disease severity. Following

pulse corticosteroid therapy, oral prednisolone is commenced at a dose of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg daily, while the starting dose is 0.8–1.0 mg/kg daily when not preceded by intravenous pulses. The dose of oral corticosteroids Aldehyde dehydrogenase is thereafter tapered to target a dose of prednisolone below 20 mg daily after 3 months, and below 10 mg daily at 6 months from baseline. Combination immunosuppression with corticosteroids and MMF is considered a standard-of-care treatment option, in view of the published data demonstrating its efficacy and tolerability in the majority of Asian patients treated with this regimen.[31-33, 35] However, it should be noted that patients with crescentic LN and rapidly deteriorating renal function were often excluded from prior clinical trials. Also, the results of a post-hoc analysis of pooled data suggest that while the short-term efficacy was similar between MMF or CYC based induction treatment in patients with Class III/IV LN and renal impairment, CYC induction may be associated with more sustained remission and more favorable long-term renal outcome.[72] It is therefore important to monitor the responsiveness when MMF is used to treat patients with very severe disease.

These cells were permeabilized with 0·5% saponin solution in PBS/

These cells were permeabilized with 0·5% saponin solution in PBS/BSA (SAP buffer). After 1 h permeabilization at 4°C cells were incubated, for additional 30 min, with the

cytokine BTK inhibitor supplier antibodies PE-Cy7-labelled anti-IFN-γ, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled anti-TNF-α, APC-labelled anti-IL-2 and PE-labelled anti-IL-10, washed with SAP buffer and resuspended in PBS/BSA. All antibodies were purchased from e-Bioscience except when noted. A minimum of 50 000 events per sample were acquired inside the lymphocytes gate, based on size and granularity properties, in a CyAn ADP flow cytometer device (Beckman-Coulter/Dako, Brea, CA, USA) and analysed using FlowJo software (Tree Star Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). Statistical comparisons were performed by a two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks, Mann–Whitney U-test (in the comparison between patients and control groups) and Spearman’s correlation tests, using GraphPad Prism version 5·0 software (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). All cytokine frequencies, mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and iMFI values reported are after background subtraction of the frequency, MFI or integrated MFI (iMFI) of the identically gated population of cells from the same sample Rucaparib manufacturer cultured without antigen. Statistical significance was

assigned to P ≤ 0·05. Single-parameter evaluation of cytokine producing CD4+ T cells: analysis via iMFI of cytokine-expressing Tideglusib cells can make a difference The majority of studies that evaluate immune responses in human leishmaniasis usually estimate the frequency of antigen-specific IFN-γ and other Th1-related cytokine-producing cells, as a key immune correlate of a protective

response. In a former report, Darrah et al. [31] developed a metric approach in order to evaluate the total response of a given population of cytokine-producing cells that combine the magnitude and quality of T cell responses multiplying the frequency of cytokine-expressing cells by the cytokine MFI, termed iMFI. After applying this novel metric approach to our data we were able to detect more pronounced differences between healed CL patients and control groups for both Leishmania crude antigen preparations than when using only the frequencies of cytokine-positive cells (Fig. 1a and b). More significantly, we found that LbAg-stimulated CD4+T cells have considerably higher iMFIs for IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in comparison to LaAg (Fig. 1b) in the healed CL group, while only the frequencies of IL2+CD4+ T cells differ between both antigens in the same group (Fig. 1a). These findings indicate that LbAg induces higher cytokine production by CD4+T cells than LaAg, rather than a higher percentage of cytokine-producing cells.

Li Zhang (Toronto, Canada) showed that ex vivo expanded human γδ

Li Zhang (Toronto, Canada) showed that ex vivo expanded human γδ T cells are effective against pre-established autologous primary lung cancer in NOD/SCID mice, with both NKG2D and TRAIL being involved in γδ T-cell-mediated anti-tumour activity. Larry Lamb (Birmingham, AL, USA) highlighted that while human γδ T cells can clearly expand and be functional in mouse glioblastoma models they are typically depleted and dysfunctional Barasertib in human glioblastoma patients, raising key issues about autologous adoptive transfer therapies.

In this context, Richard Lopez (Birmingham, AL, USA) suggested a new therapeutic scheme consisting of lymphodepleting doses of cyclophosphamide to create a “window of opportunity” for administration of allogeneic γδ T cells obtained from healthy donors. Although at present only demonstrated in mouse models, such an approach would allow the generation of large numbers of non-exhausted γδ T cells for “off the shelf” treatment of cancer patients. The fifth γδ T-cell conference provided a comprehensive review of what is being done around the world to clarify the enigmatic role of this lymphocyte lineage in the immune response. Significant advances have been made in understanding the development and activation (particularly SAHA HDAC purchase antigen recognition) of murine and human γδ T cells. Furthermore,

exciting efforts are being pursued to apply this knowledge in immunotherapy of infection and cancer, and initial steps are being taken in the context of autoimmune diseases. The next γδ T-cell conference is scheduled for 2014 in Chicago, IL (USA). We thank all researchers cited above for

their input and Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa for help with the manuscript. This conference was generously sponsored Carbachol by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) — grants FI 458/5-1 (to P.F.), EXC294 (BIOSS Center for Biological Signalling Studies) and SFB620 B6 (to W.W.A.S); EU through grant FP7/2007–2013 SYBILLA; the Department of Pathology at the University of Freiburg, the Centre for Chronic Immunodeficiency, the local Collaborative Research Centre (CRC 620), and various commercial sponsors. “
“Different rates of bacterial translocation across the gut mucosa have been reported but few studies have examined translocation of commensals at the level of the gut epithelial microfold (M) cell. We used an in vitro M-cell model to quantify translocation and determine the transcriptional response of M cells to various commensal bacteria. The transport kinetics and gene expression profile of M cells in response to different bacterial strains, namely Lactobacillus salivarius, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis, was assessed. Bacterial strains translocated across M cells with different efficiencies; E. coli and B. fragilis translocated with equal efficiency whereas L. salivarius translocated with less efficiency.

A total of 662 samples were collected

from 331 trees and

A total of 662 samples were collected

from 331 trees and cacti from Havana, Cuba. Initial selection of the isolates was carried out by conventional techniques. Isolates were further MG-132 nmr characterised using a combination of AFLP analysis and DNA sequence analysis. Identification by conventional methods yielded 121 C. neoformans and 61 C. gattii isolates. Molecular analyses showed that none of these isolates was C. gattii and only one isolate proved to be C. neoformans var. grubii. A total of 27 different other species were identified. The most prevalent species was C. heveanensis (33%). Sixty-five unidentifiable isolates segregated into ten potentially novel species. Conventional cultivation methods have a low specificity for C. neoformans complex and molecular analyses need to be applied to confirm identification of isolates from environmental sources. Environmental niches responsible for most of human cryptococcal infections in Cuba remain to be identified. “
“Despite several chemotherapeutic and preventative advances, opportunistic fungal infections

remain common unintended consequences of cancer treatment. Currently, cancer patients spend most of their time between treatments at home, where they can inadvertently click here come across potential hazards from environmental and food sources. Therefore, infection prevention measures are of the utmost importance for these patients. Although clinicians closely observe patients throughout their treatment courses in the hospital, the focus of clinical visits is predominantly on cancer

care, and clinicians seldom provide recommendations for prevention of such infections. Herein, we provide practical recommendations for busy clinicians to help them educate patients regarding potential sources of fungal infections outside the hospital. “
“Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms Chlormezanone remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms.

001) The IFN-γ concentrations in newly diagnosed and relapsed pa

001). The IFN-γ concentrations in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients were not significantly different from those of patients with chronic TB. However, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed and chronic TB

with purified protein derivative (PPD) or heat killed M. tuberculosis (H37Ra) enhanced production of granulysin by PBMCs. In vitro, stimulation of PBMCs of newly diagnosed TB patients with PPD produced Enzalutamide order greater amounts of IFN-γ than did controls, while those stimulated with H37Ra did not. The results demonstrate that patients with active pulmonary TB have low circulating granulysin but high IFN-γ concentrations, suggesting possible roles in host defense against M. tuberculosis for these agents. Tuberculosis is a major

health problem worldwide, with one third of the world population being infected and approximately 1.1–1.7 million deaths annually (1). Most individuals infected with Mtb are asymptomatic. However, 5–10% will progress to active TB during their lifetime, the remainder being resistant to active TB, but remaining infected. Relapse of TB, which is defined as an episode of infection occurring after a previous episode has been treated and considered cured, is possibly due to endogenous reactivation when it occurs in geographical areas with a low incidence of TB infection (2). However, generally the Sotrastaurin solubility dmso risk of relapse depends on the intensity of exposure to Mtb. Other factors that directly affect the clinical course of TB are host factors, including age, immune status, genetic factors and coinfection with HIV, and bacterial factors, including degree Fluorometholone Acetate of exposure, virulence of strain, MDR and XDR. Protective immunity against Mtb infection involves activated macrophages, antigen-specific T cells and type-1 cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF (3, 4). Inherited defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway appear to result in a variety of changes in mycobacterial susceptibility. People

with genetic deficiencies in the type-1 cytokine (IL-12/IL-23/IFN-γ) axis, and those with neutralizing autoantibody against IFN-γ, have been found to be highly susceptible to mycobacterial infections including TB (5–8). In active pulmonary TB, these effectors of the immune response are activated, as evidenced by observation of high circulating IFN-γ concentrations that decrease significantly following two months of therapy (9, 10). Granulysin can kill extracellular Mtb directly, or intracellular bacteria in the presence of perforin (11), expression of granulysin in CD8+T cells being induced upon activation. It has recently been reported that granulysin is strongly associated with diverse activities of NK cells and CTLs in physiological and pathological settings, and might be a useful novel serum marker for evaluating the overall status of host cellular immunity (12).

Thus, our data support the general notion that 2D parameters of T

Thus, our data support the general notion that 2D parameters of TCR–peptide-major

histocompatibility complex–CD8 interactions determine T-cell responsiveness and suggest a potential 2D-based strategy to screen TCRs for tumor immunotherapy. The interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) not only defines T-cell specificity and sensitivity but also underpins T-cell development, activation, proliferation, and differentiation [1]. One of the long-lasting interests in immunology is to understand how T-cell functions are related to kinetic properties of the TCR–co-receptor–pMHC interaction. Despite extensive studies on measuring and correlating TCR–pMHC binding kinetics with T-cell activation [2-4], no clear answer has yet been reached [2]. The majority of kinetic studies employ surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. SPR measures the intrinsic properties of molecular interaction between C646 ic50 soluble TCRs and pMHCs [5-7]. For naturally occurring TCRs, their interactions with pMHCs are generally of low affinity, with dissociation constants (KD) in the range of 1–100 μM [4]. To reconcile the low affinities with the remarkable sensitivity of T cells to antigens, various models have been proposed, e.g. co-receptors [3, 8], TCR oligomerization [9, 10], and co-agonism [11] models. A large

array of SPR data on various TCR systems and their respective ligands points to the duration of TCR–pMHC engagement (the half-life, or its reciprocal, the off-rate) as Selleckchem Natural Product Library the best correlator with T-cell functional outcomes [2, 12, 13]. However, many outliers exist [14, 15], especially for antagonist ligands [6, 16]. TCR affinity has also been shown to correlate with the strength of T-cell responses [3, 8, 17-19]. In some cases, however, TCR affinity above certain range may lead to plateaued [17, 19] or even attenuated [20-22] T-cell responses. It is often difficult to determine whether the off-rate Idelalisib in vivo or the affinity better predicts T-cell function, because the two parameters are related [4]. A recent study [23] suggested they may predict different aspects

of T-cell activation. Using multimeric binding to overcome the low monomeric TCR–pMHC affinity allows direct staining of the TCR on the T-cell surface with fluorescent pMHC tetramers [5, 8, 24], which also accounts for the co-receptor contribution not considered in most SPR measurements. However, it is difficult to derive intrinsic kinetic parameters from tetramer staining data [25]. Furthermore, pMHC tetramer usually fails to detect weak TCR–pMHC interactions, especially for MHC class II-restricted TCR systems [26]. Both SPR and tetramer staining require one interacting species in the soluble form and thus are termed three-dimensional (3D) measurements [27]. One major caveat of 3D measurements by SPR is that soluble TCR fails to account for possible regulations by the complex T-cell membrane environment.

There were dose-related increases in a variety of indicators of p

There were dose-related increases in a variety of indicators of pulmonary inflammation, such as number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, amounts of albumin and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the bronchi and nitric oxide production of alveolar macrophages. Contradictory results were reported from an acute inhalation exposure

in guinea-pigs to non-soluble curdlan, schizophyllan and zymosan (300 µg/m3 for 40 min) [24]. There was no effect on the number of neutrophils in the airways, but a tendency to a decreased number of macrophages and lymphocytes. The discrepancy between the studies is related probably buy Sotrastaurin to the differences in dose levels, where P-glucan in low levels does not induce an inflammatory response. Another reason might be interspecies differences in lung macrophage function [25]. In the present in vitro experiments with PBMC, the dose level per cell was very high compared to environmental exposures. P-glucan caused a large increase in the secretion of IL-6, which was higher among subjects with sarcoidosis. This cytokine is a potent inducer of a general inflammatory response, involving several

cytokines such as IL-17 which GSK2118436 mouse has been related to granuloma formation. Secretion of the anti-inflammatory IL-10, as seen after the stimulation with P-glucan and LPS, will inhibit macrophages and the differentiation of Th2 cells into Th1 effector cells [26]. The secretion was higher among subjects with sarcoidosis, which is in agreement with previous studies where the secretion

of IL-10 from alveolar macrophages was higher among subjects with sarcoidosis compared to controls [27,28]. IL-10 has important anti-inflammatory properties and also supresses granuloma formation [29]. S-glucan was a moderate inducer of cytokines from PBMC. In previous experiments an intratracheal instillation of a soluble β-glucan from Niclosamide C. albicans (25–100 ug/animal) was found to induce neutrophil and eosinophil inflammation with increased local expression of a variety of inflammatory cytokines [IL-1β, IL-6, macrophage proteins and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)][30]. This suggests that S-glucan and P-glucan trigger different mechanisms for cytokine secretion from PBMC. The relation between the P-glucan-induced release of all the cytokines measured and serum levels of IL-2R and IL-12 connects the PBMC reactivity with two major inflammatory markers of sarcoidosis [6]. The ability of PBMC to secrete IL-12 after stimulation with P-glucan also related to the duration of the disease, reflecting the increasing inflammatory changes developing in sarcoidosis and paralleling the relation between domestic exposure to NAHA and spontaneous secretion of IL-12.

Results: The main contributing factors of AKI were sepsis (31 1%)

Results: The main contributing factors of AKI were sepsis (31.1%) and ischemia (52.7%). AKI was multifactorial in 78% of patients with cancer and in 71% of patients without cancer. Hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with cancer (42.8%) than in patients without cancer (22.5%) (P = 0.014). In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer diagnosis were associated with hospital mortality. Cancer diagnosis was independently associated with mortality [odds ratio = 3.010 (95% confidence interval, 2.340–3.873), P = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed

that subjects with DM and cancer (n = 146) had lower survival rates than subjects with DM and without cancer (n = 687) (log rank test, PI3K inhibitor P = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of DM and cancer were independently associated with mortality in patients both with and without

cancer. OBARA NANA1, UEDA SEIJI1, NAKAYAMA YOSUKE NAKAYAMA1, YAMAGISHI SHO-ICHI YAMAGISHI2, TAGUCHI KENSEI TAGUCHI1, ANDO RYOTARO ANDO1, YOKORO MIYUKI YOKORO1, FUKAMI KEI FUKAMI1, OKUDA SEIYA OKUDA1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Kurume university; 2Department of Physiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic vascular Complications, Kurume University Introduction: Injury to the renal vasculature plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, roles of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor Resveratrol of nitric oxide Selleckchem BTK inhibitor synthease, in AKI remain unclear. So, we investigated the kinetics and the roles of ADMA in ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-injured mice and patients undergoing elective coronary angiography (CAG). Methods: We first examined the kinetics of ADMA, and DDAH-1, a key enzyme for ADMA degradation, levels in the kidney of IR-injured mice. Further, we examined the effects of continuous infusion of ADMA on renal IR injury, and studied whether the IR injury could be attenuated in DDAH-1 transgenic

(Tg) mice. Furthermore, we collected blood and urine samples of 52 patients before and after elective CAG at our institution. Results: After the IR injury, DDAH-1 levels were decreased and renal and plasma ADMA levels were increased in association with renal injury. Infusion of subpressor dose of ADMA exacerbated renal dysfunction, capillary loss and tubular necrosis in the kidney of IR-injured wild mice, while these IR-induced damages were attenuated in DDAH-1 Tg mice. In contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) study, no case of obvious AKI assessed by changes in creatinine level was identified. However, levels of ADMA, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) were significantly increased by administration of contrast medium.

In fact, the immunomodulatory effects of VIP were prevented by a

In fact, the immunomodulatory effects of VIP were prevented by a VIP antagonist, indicating the endogenous JQ1 in vitro VIP contribution. Therefore, VIP might act as a tolerogenic factor modulating

the Th1/Treg effector responses and the production of pro/anti-inflammatory mediators promoting an overall balance that favours tolerance towards trophoblast antigens. The role of VIP in the maintenance of immune tolerance by expansion of the Treg population has been demonstrated [32, 33]. In fact, VIP was able to modulate the Treg subpopulation in several acute and chronic inflammatory processes [37-41]. Previously, in line with this, we have demonstrated Treg cell modulation by VIP through the up-regulation of FoxP3 and TGF-β in pancreas of diabetic NOD mice, which may lead to the restoration of tolerance to pancreatic autoantigens [17]. VIP expression was detected only in selleck screening library decidua and trophoblast cells, with a peak at day 8 of gestation in the murine model [19].

However, when extra-embryo tissues were separated from the embryo, the main source of VIP production was from maternal lymphocytes. This transient VIP expression correlates with the critical period of VIP effects as an embryo growth regulator and a neural growth factor [19, 42, 43]. Consistent with a strict regulation of the immune response during pregnancy, thrombotic/inflammatory processes are often observed at the maternal–fetal interface as the final pathological assault of pregnancy losses in many

cases, including those of unexplained aetiologies. Tissue damage and embryo resorption is associated Janus kinase (JAK) with the failure of several immunological mechanisms, such as an exacerbated inflammatory/Th1 response, ultimately responsible for cytotoxic natural killer activation and reflected by elevated leucocyte infiltration [9, 44] or limited maternal repertoire of killer inhibitory receptors and lack of fetal human leucocyte antigen Cw (HLA-Cw) molecules on trophoblast cells [30], among others [6, 8]. In this study, we evaluated the role of immunomodulatory VIP in the trophoblast–maternal cell interaction under normal and pathological conditions, using maternal PBMCs from fertile or RSA women. Our results showed clearly that RSA PBMCs displayed an exacerbated proinflammatory and Th1 immune response after interaction with trophoblast cells, reflected by an increase in T-bet expression level and nitrite production. Conversely, we observed a significant decrease in the frequency of Treg cells in these co-cultures with lower levels of TGF-β and IL-10 secretion.