The non-affected limb decreased as well, although the non-affecte

The non-affected limb decreased as well, although the non-affected limb was very sensitive to PRD initially, whereas

the affected limb was not. Based on these results, it was concluded that PRD is a better index of hyperreflexia, and this measurement could be more informative of synapse function than simple H-reflexes. This study presents a novel and non-pharmacological means of managing spasticity that warrants further investigation with the potential of being translated to the clinic. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Water is one major pathways by which the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogen enters aquaculture facilities. This paper describes the production and use of a capacitive biosensor for the quantitative detection of as little as 1 copy/mu

l of WSSV in shrimp pond OSI-027 research buy water. A glutathione-S-transferase tag for white spot binding protein (GST-WBP) Anlotinib chemical structure was immobilized on a gold electrode through a self-assembled monolayer. Binding between WSSV and the immobilized GST-WBP was directly detected by a capacitance measurement. Under optimum conditions, the capacitive biosensor detected WSSV over a wide linear range of between 1 and 1 x 10(5) copies/mu l. The system was highly selective for WSSV. One analysis cycle required only 20-25 min of analysis time and 25 min of regeneration time. The capacitive biosensor was applied to analyze WSSV concentration in eight shrimp pond water samples and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) method (P > 0.05). The immobilized GST-WBP provided

and could be reused for up to 39 analysis cycles for one electrode preparation with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4% and a good reproducibility of residual activity (95.8 +/- 2.3%). The appealing performance of this biosensor indicated that it had great potential for an accurate very sensitive, quantitative, detection method for WSSV. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect two different NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase kinds of signals from the human brain: the hemodynamic response (slow) and the neuronal response (fast). This paper explores a nonlinear aspect in the tactile-stimulus-evoked neuronal optical response over a NIRS time series (light intensity variation). The existence of the fast optical responses (FORs) over the time series recorded in stimulus sessions is confirmed by event-related averaging. The chaos levels of the NIRS time series recorded both in stimulus and in rest sessions are then identified according to the estimated largest Lyapunov exponent. The obtained results ascertain that stimulus-evoked neuronal optical responses can be detected in the somatosensory cortex using continuous-wave NIRS equipment. Further, the results strongly suggest that the chaos level can be used to recognize the FORs in NIRS time series and, thereby, the state of the pertinent brain activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data of patients adm

METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data of patients admitted to the Cambridge Neuroscience critical care unit who had continuous recordings of arterial blood pressure, ICP, and cerebral blood flow velocities (FVs) using TCD. PI was calculated (FVsys – FVdia)/FVmean over each recording session. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman rank correlation, receiver-operator-characteristics methods, and modeling of a nonlinear PI-ICP/CPP graph.

RESULTS: Seven hundred sixty-two recorded daily sessions from 290 patients A-1210477 ic50 were analyzed with a total recording time of 499.9 hours. The correlation between PI and ICP was 0.31 (P < .001) and for PI and CPP-0.41 (P <

.001). The 95% prediction interval of ICP values for a given PI was more than +/- 15 mm Hg and for CPP

more than +/- 25 mm Hg. The diagnostic value of PI to assess ICP area under the curve ranged from 0.62 (ICP > 15 mm Hg) to 0.74 (ICP > 35 mm Hg). For CPP, the area under the curve ranged from 0.68 (CPP <70 mm Hg) to 0.81 (CPP <50 mm Hg). Probability charts for elevated ICP/lowered CPP depending on PI were created.

CONCLUSION: Overall, the value of TCD-PI to assess ICP and CPP VX-689 in vitro noninvasively is very limited. However, extreme values of PI can still potentially be used in support of a decision for invasive ICP monitoring.”
“Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection induces profound nucleolar modifications at the functional and organizational levels, including nucleolar invasion by several viral proteins.

One of these proteins is US11, which exhibits several different functions and displays both cytoplasmic localization Dynein and clear nucleolar localization very similar to that of the major multifunctional nucleolar protein nucleolin. To determine whether US11 interacts with nucleolin, we purified US11 protein partners by coimmunoprecipitations using a tagged protein, Flag-US11. From extracts of cells expressing Flag-US11 protein, we copurified a protein of about 100 kDa that was further identified as nucleolin. In vitro studies have demonstrated that nucleolin interacts with US11 and that the C-terminal domain of US11, which is required for US11 nucleolar accumulation, is sufficient for interaction with nucleolin. This association was confirmed in HSV-1-infected cells. We found an increase in the nucleolar accumulation of US11 in nucleolin-depleted cells, thereby revealing that nucleolin could play a role in US11 nucleocytoplasmic trafficking through one-way directional transport out of the nucleolus. Since nucleolin is required for HSV-1 nuclear egress, the interaction of US11 with nucleolin may participate in the outcome of infection.”
“We have previously reported that cocaine self-administration is facilitated in male rats not residing in the test chambers (Non Resident rats) relative to rats living in the test chambers at all times (Resident rats).

Methods: Consecutive femoral

Methods: Consecutive femoral selleck products (n = 224) and carotid (n = 693) endarterectomy

specimens underwent histologic examination for the presence of collagen, calcifications, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, fat, and intraplaque thrombus. Patients were monitored for 3 years after the initial operation and investigated for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Primary outcome was the composite end point “”major cardiovascular event.”" Alcohol consumption was categorized as no alcohol use, 1 to 10 U/wk, or > 10 U/wk.

Results: The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the major cardiovascular event rate after 3 years of follow-up in the femoral group was 35% for no alcohol use and 21% for 1 to 10 U/wk, whereas only 10% of the group > 10 U/wk sustained a major cardiovascular event (P = .010). The plaques of alcohol consumers in the femoral group click here contained significantly

smaller lipid cores and less macrophage infiltration than in abstainers. In the carotid group, the major cardiovascular event rate was similar in all three groups, and in addition, no difference in plaque composition was observed.

Conclusions: This study shows an inverse relationship between alcohol use and major cardiovascular events after endarterectomy for lower extremity arterial occlusive disease, accompanied by a more stable plaque phenotype. However, no such relationship could be observed for patients with cerebrovascular disease. (J Vasc Surg 2011;54:123-32.)”
“Objective: To assess

depression, anxiety, and anger as well as the variance that these emotions share (conceptualized as negative affect) in relationship to high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a specific indicator of parasympathetic cardiac autonomic function related to premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although individual trait negative emotions have been studied in relation to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as biological mechanisms leading to CHD end points (e.g., autonomic nervous system [ANS] dysfunction), the degree to which a general tendency to experience negative emotions may account for these relations is not known. Methods: The sample included 653 most community volunteers (51.0% female; 15.8% Black) aged 30 to 54 years (mean +/- standard deviation = 43.8 +/- 7.1 years). Latent constructs of depression, anxiety, and anger were each measured by three scales from well-validated self-report questionnaires. Resting HF-HRV was derived from 5-minute segments of continuous electrocadiographs recorded during both unpaced and paced respiration conditions. Results: Structural equation models (SEM) of the individual trait emotions showed depression and anxiety related inversely to HF-HRV and anger unrelated to HF-HRV. SEM also showed negative affect related inversely to HF-HRV.

The primary outcome was any surgical-site infection within 30 day

The primary outcome was any surgical-site infection within 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included individual types of surgical-site infections.


A total of 849 subjects (409 in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and 440 in the povidone-iodine group) qualified for the intention-to-treat analysis. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was significantly lower in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group than in the povidone-iodine group (9.5% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.004; relative risk, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.85). Chlorhexidine-alcohol was significantly CA-4948 chemical structure more protective than povidone-iodine against both superficial incisional

infections (4.2% vs. 8.6%, P = 0.008) and deep incisional infections (1% vs. 3%, P = 0.05) but not against organ-space infections (4.4% vs. 4.5%). Similar results were observed in the per-protocol analysis of the 813 patients who remained in the study during the 30-day follow-up period. Adverse events were similar in the two study groups.


Preoperative cleansing of the patient’s skin with chlorhexidine-alcohol is superior to cleansing with povidone-iodine for preventing surgical-site infection after clean-contaminated surgery. ( number, NCT00290290.)”


AZD1390 ic50 previous epidemic and pandemic diseases, 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) may pose an increased risk of severe illness in pregnant women.


Statewide surveillance for patients who were hospitalized with or died from 2009 H1N1 influenza was initiated by the California Department of Public Health. We reviewed demographic and clinical data reported from April 23 through August 11, 2009, for all H1N1-infected, reproductive-age women who were hospitalized or died -nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and postpartum women (those who had delivered <= 2 weeks previously).


Data were reported for 94 pregnant women, 8 postpartum women,

Protein kinase N1 and 137 nonpregnant women of reproductive age who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza. Rapid antigen tests were falsely negative in 38% of the patients tested (58 of 153). Most pregnant patients (89 of 94 [95%]) were in the second or third trimester, and approximately one third (32 of 93 [34%]) had established risk factors for complications from influenza other than pregnancy. As compared with early antiviral treatment (administered <= 2 days after symptom onset) in pregnant women, later treatment was associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death (relative risk, 4.3). In all, 18 pregnant women and 4 postpartum women (total, 22 of 102 [22%]) required intensive care, and 8 (8%) died. Six deliveries occurred in the ICU, including four emergency cesarean deliveries. The 2009 H1N1 influenza-specific maternal mortality ratio (the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) was 4.3.

The effect that blocking access to LDL receptors by VLDL, or inte

The effect that blocking access to LDL receptors by VLDL, or internalisation of VLDL particles containing different amounts of apolipoprotein E (we will refer to these particles as VLDL-2 and VLDL-3) has on LDL uptake GSK3326595 datasheet is explored. By comparison with experimental data we find that measures of cell cholesterol content are important in differentiating between the mechanisms by which VLDL is thought to inhibit LDL uptake. We extend our work to show that in the presence of both types of VLDL particle (VLDL-2 and VLDL-3), measuring relative LDL uptake does not allow differentiation

between the results of blocking and internalisation of each VLDL particle to be made. Instead by considering the intracellular cholesterol content it is found AR-13324 clinical trial that internalisation of VLDL-2 and VLDL-3 leads to the highest intracellular cholesterol concentration. A sensitivity analysis of the model reveals that binding, unbinding and internalisation rates, the fraction of receptors recycled and the rate at which the cholesterol dependent free receptors are created

by the cell have important implications for the overall uptake dynamics of either VLDL or LDL particles and subsequent intracellular cholesterol concentration. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In vertebrate somitogenesis, “”segmentation clock”" genes (such as her in zebrafish, hairy in chick, and hes in Mouse) show oscillation, synchronized over nearby cells through cell-cell interaction.

The locations of high gene expression appear with regular intervals and move like a wave from posterior to anterior with the speed slowing down toward the anterior end. We analyze traveling wave pattern of her gene expression when there is an anterior-posterior gradient of one of the reaction rates in the gene-protein kinetics. We adopt a model which includes the kinetics of mRNA and proteins of her gene in each cell and cell-cell interaction by Delta-Notch system explicitly. We show that the observed spatio-temporal pattern can be explained if mRNA degradation, protein translation, Cell press protein transportation to nucleus occurs faster, or mRNA transcription, Delta protein synthesis occurs slower in posterior than in anterior regions. All of these gradients are those that produce longer periodicity of oscillation of clock gene expression in the anterior than in the posterior. Based on this result, we derive a mathematical formula for how the peak of gene expression moves along the pere-somitic mesoderm. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Evolution of cooperative norms is studied in a population where individual- and group-level selection are both in operation.

Elimination of this reservoir is critical to curing HIV-1 infecti

Elimination of this reservoir is critical to curing HIV-1 infection. Agents that reactivate latent HIV-1 through nonspecific T cell activation are toxic. Here we demonstrate in a primary CD4(+) T cell model that the FDA-approved drug disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 without

global T cell activation. The extent to which disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in patient cells is unclear, but the drug alone or in combination may be useful in future eradication strategies.”
“In nonhuman primates, anxiety levels are typically assessed by observing social hierarchies or behavior in an intruder task. As measures of anxiety might influence performance on a particular cognitive task, it is important to analyze these measures in the same room as used for the cognitive task. As we use a playroom for the spatial maze test, we classified elderly Src inhibitor female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) monkeys, as bold or reserved monkeys based on the time spent in specific areas of this room. Based on their exploratory behavior in the playroom, bold monkeys were defined as animals that spent 20% more time in the unprotected areas of the room than in the protected areas, whereas reserved monkeys spent a comparable amount of time in both areas. MRI analyses showed that reserved monkeys had a smaller amygdala compared to bold monkeys but there were no group differences in

hippocampal volumes. In addition, the amount of time buy INK1197 spent in the corners of the room was negatively correlated with the right amygdala as well as the

total amygdala size. Finally, reserved monkeys showed a lower phMRI response to the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine compared to the bold monkeys. Thus, in elderly female nonhuman primates measures of anxiety are associated with structural amygdala differences and hippocampal muscarinic receptor function.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Anxiety and Depression’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Scorpion venoms contain toxic peptides that recognize K+ channels of excitable and non-excitable cells. These toxins comprise three structurally distinct groups designated alpha-KTx, beta-KTx, and gamma-KTx. Sirolimus It is highly desirable to develop systems for the expression of these toxins for further physiological and structural studies. In this work, an expression vector (pTEV3) was constructed by inserting protein D (major capsid of phage lambda) and TEV protease recognition site into plasmid pET21d DNA sequences. Three alpha-KTx toxins (OsK2, PbTx1, and BmKK3) were cloned into vector pTEV3 and expressed as soluble fusion proteins. The fractions containing the purified fusion proteins (protein D-toxin) were treated with TEV protease to remove protein D. The resulting toxins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

Methods We undertook

Methods We undertook AS1842856 mw a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 81 centres in 13 countries between Nov 9, 2009, and Dec 5, 2011. Eligible patients were aged 12-74 years, had a history of recurrent severe asthma exacerbations, and had signs of eosinophilic inflammation. They were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive one of three doses of intravenous mepolizumab (75 mg, 250 mg, or 750 mg) or matched placebo (100 mL 0.9% NaCl) with a central telephone-based system and computer-generated randomly permuted block schedule stratified by whether treatment with oral corticosteroids was required.

Patients received 13 infusions at 4-week intervals. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant asthma exacerbations, which were defined as validated episodes of acute asthma requiring treatment with oral corticosteroids, admission, or a visit to an emergency department. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were masked to treatment assignment. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Foretinib datasheet, number NCT01000506.


621 patients were randomised: 159 were assigned to placebo, 154 to 75 mg mepolizumab, 152 to 250 mg mepolizumab, and 156 to 750 mg mepolizumab. 776 exacerbations were deemed to be clinically significant. The rate of clinically significant exacerbations was 2.40 per patient per year in the placebo group, 1.24 in the 75 mg mepolizumab group (48% reduction, 95% CI 31-61%; p<0.0001), 1.46 in the 250 mg mepolizumab group (39% reduction, 19-54%; p=0.0005), and 1.15 in the 750 mg mepolizumab group (52% reduction, 36-64%; p<0.0001). Three patients died during the study,

but the deaths were not deemed to be related to treatment.

Interpretation Mepolizumab is an effective and well tolerated treatment that reduces the risk Fludarabine of asthma exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.”
“The regional distribution, laterality, and reliability of volumetric pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions were determined in 10 normal volunteers studied on two occasions separated by 3 to 7 days. Regional CBF, normalized for global perfusion, was highly reliable when measured on separate days. Several regions showed significant lateral asymmetry; notably, in frontal regions CBF was greater in the right than left hemisphere, whereas left was greater than right in posterior regions. There was considerable regional variability across the brain, whereby the posterior cingulate and central and posterior precuneus cortices had the highest perfusion and the globus pallidus the lowest gray matter perfusion. The latter may be due to iron-induced T1 shortening affecting labeled spins and computed CBF signal.

Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month t

Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness.


We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months.



291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by

CHIR98014 purchase the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight ACY-1215 cost was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P = 0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P = 0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events.


A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings support implementation of targeted behavioral weight-loss interventions in this high-risk population. (Funded by the National Institute

of Mental Health; ACHIEVE ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00902694.)”
“Increasing the conformational stability of proteins is an important goal for both basic research and industrial applications. In vitro selection has been used successfully to increase protein stability, but more often site-directed mutagenesis is used to optimize the various forces that contribute to protein stability. In previous studies, we showed ZD1839 price that improving electrostatic interactions on the protein surface and improving the beta-turn sequences were good general strategies for increasing protein stability, and used them to increase the stability of RNase Sa. By incorporating seven of these mutations in RNase Sa, we increased the stability by 5.3 kcal/mol. Adding one more mutation, D79F, gave a total increase in stability of 7.7 kcal/mol, and a melting temperature 28 degrees C higher than the wild-type enzyme. Surprisingly, the D79F mutation lowers the change in heat capacity for folding, Delta C-p, by 0.6 kcal/mol/K.

The animals were exposed to psychosocial stress for 35 days and c

The animals were exposed to psychosocial stress for 35 days and concomitant daily fluoxetine treatment (10

mg/kg for rats and 15 mg/kg for tree shrews) after the first week of stress. The results confirmed a major role for hippocampal and hypothalamic NPY system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Although there were no evident differences between rat and tree shrew in the NPY system distribution, an opposite effect of chronic psychosocial stress was observed in the two species. Moreover, chronic antidepressant treatment was able to counteract the effects of stress and restored basal expression levels, suggesting the utility of these paradigms as preclinical models of stress-induced depression. Overall, CFTRinh-172 manufacturer although evident species differences were found in response to chronic psychosocial stress, the present study suggests a role for NPY receptors in the stress response and in the action of antidepressant drugs, providing further support for an involvement of this neuropeptidergic system in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

Ondansetron is frequently used

to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but the safety of this drug for the fetus has not been well studied.


We investigated the risk of adverse fetal outcomes associated with ondansetron administered during pregnancy. From a historical cohort of 608,385 pregnancies in Denmark, women who were exposed click here to ondansetron and those who were not exposed were included, in a 1: 4 ratio, in propensity-score-matched analyses of spontaneous abortion (1849 exposed women vs. 7396 unexposed women), stillbirth (1915 vs. 7660), any major birth defect (1233 vs. 4932), preterm delivery (1792 vs. 7168), and birth of infants at low birth weight and small for gestational age (1784 vs. 7136). In addition, estimates were adjusted for hospitalization for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (as a proxy for severity) and the use of other antiemetics.


Receipt of ondansetron was not associated with a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion, which occurred in 1.1% of exposed

women and 3.7% of unexposed women during gestational weeks 7 to 12 (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.91) and in 1.0% and 2.1%, respectively, during weeks 13 to 22 (hazard Hydroxychloroquine solubility dmso ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.21). Ondansetron also conferred no significantly increased risk of stillbirth (0.3% for exposed women and 0.4% for unexposed women; hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.73), any major birth defect (2.9% and 2.9%, respectively; prevalence odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.82), preterm delivery (6.2% and 5.2%; prevalence odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.25), delivery of a low-birth-weight infant (4.1% and 3.7%; prevalence odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.13), or delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant (10.4% and 9.2%; prevalence odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.44).

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Polycystic kid

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) comprise a large group of genetic disorders characterized by formation of cysts in the kidneys and other organs,

ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Although PKDs can be caused by mutations in different genes, they converge on a set of common molecular mechanisms involved in cystogenesis and ciliary dysfunction, and can be qualified as ciliopathies. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms regulating disease progression have led to the development of new therapies that are being tested in both preclinical and clinical trials. In this article, we briefly review a network of molecular pathways of cystogenesis that are regulated by ciliary functions. We discuss the mTOR pathway in depth, highlighting recent progress in understanding its role in PKD and Salubrinal nmr the current results of clinical trials.”
“Maternal diabetes impairs fetal development and growth. We studied the Selleck Combretastatin A4 effects of maternal diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids capable of

activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) on the concentrations of 15deoxy Delta(2.14)PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)), lipid mass, and the de novo lipid synthesis in 13.5-day fetuses from control and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration (90 mg/kg). Rats were treated with a standard diet supplemented or not with 6% olive oil or 6% safflower oil from days 0.5 to 13.5 of ZD1839 mouse gestation. Fetuses from diabetic rats fed with the standard diet showed reduced 15dPGJ2 concentrations, whereas maternal treatments with olive and safflower oils increased 15dPGJ2 concentrations. Fetuses from diabetic rats showed

increased concentrations of phospholipids and increased synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids. Diabetic rat treatments with olive and safflower oils reduced phospholipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acid concentrations and the de novo lipid synthesis in the fetuses. These effects were different from those observed in fetuses from control rats, and seem not to involve PPAR gamma activation. In conclusion, olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets provide beneficial effects in maternal diabetes, as they prevent fetal impairments in 15dPGJ2 concentrations, lipid synthesis and lipid accumulation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Several studies have suggested an interaction between alpha-synuclein protein and iron in Parkinson’s disease. The presence of iron together with alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies, the increase of iron in the substantia nigra and the correlation between polymorphism of the several genes implicated in iron metabolism and Parkinson’s disease, support a role for iron in the neurodegeneration.