Today, PSA

is the only biomarker used in daily practice f

Today, PSA

is the only biomarker used in daily practice for diagnosis and in follow-up of prostate cancer patients. Although recent improvements in imaging by multimodality MRI and PET/CT scan, we lack a sensitive method to detect lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients. Surgical lymph node dissection is still golden standard thus new markers to predict increase risk of lymph node metastases are highly warranted. Our study therefore suggests investigating CNDP1 further using functional analysis to elucidate, which mechanisms contribute to its decreasing plasma levels and how such changes can be addressed by therapy. Hereby, a focus could be on lymphatic systems and its contribution to decreases of CNDP1, but it will also be required to assess whether this is a check details prostate or gender specific finding. There were a few number of N1 cases in the analyzed cohorts, so further

replication in independent sample collections and cohorts is GSKJ4 anticipated to confirm the observed relation of CNDP1 to advanced PCa. We had previously speculated on the influence of glycosylation status on CNDP1 detection [5]. It is known that carbohydrate components of glycoproteins perform critical biological functions in protein sorting, immune and receptor recognition, inflammation, pathogenicity, metastasis, and other cellular processes [16]. N-glycans may play a role in cancer progression, as malignant cells have been shown to synthesize longer chains of N-glycans [17] and [18] and alterations of specific glycans have been observed in metastatic prostate cancer [19]. Using antibody-based detection in combination

with plasma and recombinant protein being subjected to enzymatic deglycosylation, we could not find that eltoprazine indications of CNDP1 level decrease were primarily effected by their state of glycosylation. Further analysis would be required to better understand CNDP1 glycosylation in prostate cancer, but our current data did not support previous speculations, as differential detection of CNDP1 appeared unrelated to glycosylation. Also, the relation of detected protein levels where corroborated for off-target detection. First for CNDP2, a peptidase found as a cytosolic homodimer with 2 acetylation sites and has recently been found in proteomic analysis of Parkinson’s disease [20]. CNDP2 has a 55% sequence similarity to CNDP1 but as shown by the panel of applied capture antibodies, our data did not reveal that CNDP2 would be detected instead of CNDP1. The highly abundant protease inhibitor A2M, which can form a stable complex with CNDP1, was hypothesized to constitute the approximately 150 kDa protein band observed with WB using HPA-1, HPA-1.F15 and CAB-1, as A2M or A2M-CNDP1. The interaction between A2M and anti-CNDP1 HPA-1, CAB-1, MAB-1.1 and MAB-1.2 were studied using sandwich assays.

6 and 3 76 h ( Table 2) Modeled flow compared reasonably well to

6 and 3.76 h ( Table 2). Modeled flow compared reasonably well to observed flow at nine of the 10 gauges (Table 3 and Fig. 7). These values

improved during time periods when there was a rain gauge inside the watershed. For example, the Wappinger Creek NSE improved to 0.64 from 0.57 for daily flow after 2004, when a NOAA gauge is active inside the watershed. Using these measures, the model appears acceptable in nine of the 10 watersheds, although it selleck chemical fails in the Neshanic River, NJ in all three metrics. Interestingly, event flow analyses showed better performance relative to daily for the small watersheds and no change or worse performance for the larger watersheds. Over the 6-month period of observations in Town Brook watershed, the model predicted 16 occurrences of overland runoff. During 15 of those events, the median water table depth for locations estimated as being “wet” was less than 100 mm from the soil surface, while the median dry wells remained at or below a depth of 100 mm during all events (Fig. 8). This corroborates previous findings that overland runoff in the Northeast is initiated once the water table is within approximately 100 mm of the surface (Lyon et al., 2006 and Dahlke et al., 2012). Over the course of the 16 events, we compared 288 separate predictions

of wet or dry conditions to field measurements. In 18 cases (6%), we predicted a well to be wet when the water table at that location was below 100 mm and in 55 (19%) cases we predicted a well to be dry when the water table depth was within 100 mm of the click here soil surface. The remaining 215 (75%) predictions correctly identified a location as wet or dry based on modeled results. On days when no runoff was predicted,

the average depth to the water table of all wells was 240 mm. At the Fall Creek site, four out of the 13 measurement dates were predicted to have Phospholipase D1 saturated areas contributing to storm runoff. In three of the four dates, the median volumetric soil moisture reading in the modeled wet locations was above saturation (i.e., ≥53%), while dry locations had median values below saturation (Fig. 9, top). On the date that the “wet” wells were below the saturated value (June 26, 2013), the observed streamflow at the outlet did not show a discernible rise in the hydrograph, highlighting the difficulty in correctly modeling small storm runoff events. The Cascadilla Creek site only had one instance of measurements being taken in locations predicted to be wet, and on this date, the wet sites had a median soil moisture status above saturation (Fig. 9, bottom). The model presented here shows promise as a simple tool allowing for spatial prediction of saturation-excess runoff locations in the northeastern US. Areas that were predicted to generate overland runoff had higher average soil moisture status and an elevated water table compared to areas modeled to be dry within three watersheds.

De qualquer forma, os resultados do nosso estudo vão ao encontro,

De qualquer forma, os resultados do nosso estudo vão ao encontro,

ainda que em parte, às observações que Bóer registou em diabéticos e não diabéticos ao referir que a hiperglicemia diminuía o peristaltismo Epigenetic inhibitor esofágico. O facto de se observar que os diabéticos com a glicemia matinal em jejum aumentada têm uma frequência significativamente mais elevada de ondas não transmitidas, justifica assim a relevância clínica deste estudo. Este facto lança luz à necessidade de um controlo da glicemia mais adequado que permita manter os seus níveis abaixo de 7 mmol/l. Em conclusão, no grupo de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 estudados, a percentagem de ondas não transmitidas foi significativamente mais elevada entre pacientes com glicemia em jejum > Selleckchem Ganetespib 7 mmol/l. As outras características das ondas esofágicas não revelaram qualquer diferença significativa

entre os 2 grupos de pacientes diabéticos. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A doença hepática autoimune (DHAI) é responsável por 2 a 5% dos casos de hepatopatia crónica na criança1 and 2. Resulta de intolerância imunológica contra as células hepáticas, com evolução para inflamação crónica e destruição progressiva3. Este processo pode envolver predominantemente os hepatócitos ou o epitélio dos ductos biliares intra e/ou extra-hepáticos, denominando-se respetivamente hepatite autoimune (HAI) e colangite esclerosante primária (CEP)3, 4 and 5; a cirrose biliar primária (CBP) nunca foi diagnosticada em idade pediátrica. Aspetos sugestivos de ambas as doenças (HAI e CEP) podem estar presentes no mesmo doente, simultaneamente na altura do diagnóstico, ou em alturas diferentes ao longo da evolução da sua doença, designando-se nesse caso «síndrome de overlap» (SO) 5, 6, 7 and 8. Na idade pediátrica é particularmente frequente o overlap HAI-CEP. Existem scores de diagnóstico de HAI validados para adultos e que são aplicados na população pediátrica 1, 9, 10 and 11, mas não existem critérios de diagnóstico bem definidos de CEP 1, 4, 6 and 7. Para além das dificuldades

por vezes notadas em afirmar o diagnóstico, a distinção entre HAI, CEP e SO pode ser muito difícil. Na idade pediátrica há alguns estudos sobre HAI1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29, mas são mais raras (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate as publicações sobre CEP e SO8, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33. O objetivo deste trabalho é conhecer as dificuldades de diagnóstico de DHAI numa população pediátrica. Estudo retrospetivo baseado na consulta dos processos clínicos das crianças e adolescentes com DHAI seguidos nas consultas de Hepatologia e de Gastrenterologia de um hospital pediátrico, no período de janeiro de 1992 a 31 de dezembro de 2010. Parâmetros analisados: sexo, idade, aspetos clínicos, estudos laboratoriais, imagiológicos e histológicos e resposta ao tratamento.

Two uncertainty distributions were used (normal and raised-cosine

Two uncertainty distributions were used (normal and raised-cosine); Fig. 2 and Fig. 4, and Appendix B, show the results for a normal distribution which has fatter tails and which yields a slightly higher allowance. Planning allowances have typically been selected by choosing a specific percentile of a projection of future global-average sea-level rise. Often the 95-percentile upper limit, which is the one provided by the IPCC AR4 (Meehl et al., 2007), has been chosen. However, PD-166866 datasheet as shown in Fig. 3 (for the period 1990–2100), if sea-level rise were globally uniform, an allowance equal to the 95-percentile limit is generally significantly

larger than would be required STA-9090 supplier to preserve the frequency of flooding events under sea-level rise; for the period 1990–2100, only 2.6% of the locations considered have allowances greater than the 95-percentile upper limit. The spread of allowances in Fig. 3 is entirely due to spatial variations in the statistics of storm tides (specifically, the Gumbel scale parameter). When the spatial variation of projected sea-level rise (due to ongoing changes in the Earth’s loading and gravitational field,

thermal expansion, ocean dynamics and GIA) is included, the distribution of the allowances widens significantly (Fig. 5, for the period 1990–2100). This widening is related to locations (in northern regions of North America and Europe) which experience strongly negative GIA, and others (in the northwest region of North America) which are influenced by present changes in glaciers and icecaps. These processes contribute a significant fall in sea level, leading to negative

‘allowances’, some of which are less than −1 m. The spread of allowances covers the entire 90-percentile range of the A1FI projections of global-average sea-level rise, with 9% of the locations having allowances less than the 5-percentile lower limit and 29% of the locations having allowances greater than the 95-percentile upper limit. Fig. 4 shows the global distribution of the allowances for the period 1990–2100. Obvious features are the low and negative allowances during in the northern regions of North America and Europe (where the land is rising due to GIA and to present changes in glaciers and icecaps), and higher allowances along the eastern coastline of North America (where the land is sinking, again due to GIA). Appendix B provides a table of allowances for the periods 1990–2100 and 2010–2100. These may be used as a starting point for the determination of allowances for planning and policy decisions. However, the following caveats should be recognised: 1. The determination of allowances given in this paper is based on the assumption that the Gumbel scale parameter (and hence the variability of the storm tides) will not change in time.

Positive tendencies of the recurrence of daily heavy precipitatio

Positive tendencies of the recurrence of daily heavy precipitation

events were determined in the whole of Lithuania. However, it is quite difficult to distinguish the regions where the changes are the most intensive. According to the Mann-Kendall test significant changes were observed at separate meteorological stations representing different regions of Lithuania (Figure 6a). The recurrence trends of 3-day heavy precipitation are less clear and significant. Despite the prevailing positive tendencies (Figure 6b), at some locations the changes were negative. The number of cases when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm varied from 0 in 1979 (Vilnius) to 20 in 1980 (Telšiai). An important indicator of an extreme precipitation event is the percentage of heavy precipitation click here in the total selleck products annual amount. Mean percentages of daily heavy precipitation vary from 33 to 44% in Lithuania and can approach 60% in some years. The average 3-day heavy precipitation percentage varies from 27 to 41% and can exceed 60% in single years. In summer and autumn, the percentage of heavy precipitation is much higher than during the rest of the year. Analysis of the dynamics shows positive but mostly insignificant tendencies in a large part of Lithuania during the study period. This means that during recent decades the temporal unevenness of precipitation has increased.

This tendency is especially clear in the summer months, when extreme precipitation events increase against the background of neutral or negative trends in the total summer precipitation. An increase in daily and 3-day annual maximum values was determined during the study period. Moreover, positive tendencies of the mean annual precipitation maximum were calculated for all meteorological stations by splitting the 1961–2008 year period into two parts (Figure 7). The period from the middle

of the 1980s to the end of the 1990s was very abundant in heavy precipitation events. Long-term variability data from neighbouring countries are quite similar to our findings. In the western part of Russia an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation was recorded in 1936–2000 (Bogdanova et al. 2010). There was also an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation and in the (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate intensity of heavy precipitation in 1925–2006 in Latvia (Avotniece et al. 2010). Most of the positive significant trends were observed in the cold season, particularly in winter, and no overall long-term trend in extreme precipitation was detected in summer (Lizuma et al. 2010). In Estonia there is a rising trend of extreme precipitation events (Tammets 2010) and of the total number of extremely wet days (Tammets 2007) in 1957–2006. In contrast, another study did not reveal any significant long-term trend of heavy precipitation in 1961–2005 in Estonia (Mätlika & Post 2008).

fr “
“An integral component of tuberculosis (TB) control in

fr “
“An integral component of tuberculosis (TB) control in the United States is the identification and treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) [1]. Approximately 10% of persons infected with Mycobacterium

tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) develop TB disease. However, the risk of developing TB varies, and recently infected persons have an increased risk for TB disease [2] and [3]. One group for whom screening is recommended is persons recently arrived from areas of the world with a high incidence of TB, many of whom have been vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) [4]. LTBI has historically been diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). The interpretation of the TST requires knowledge of a person’s medical and

Erastin chemical structure epidemiologic factors to determine the threshold at which the reaction is considered positive. Because the purified protein derivative used in the TST is a poorly defined mixture of antigens shared by the M. tuberculosis complex, including wild type Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis var. BCG, and several other species of mycobacteria, it results in a specificity of approximately 60% in BCG-vaccinated populations [5]. Bleomycin datasheet The lack of specificity of the TST for M. tuberculosis has led to the inappropriate diagnosis of some patients with LTBI and to the development of alternative tests. Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), including QuantiFERON-TB-Gold (QFT-G), represent a new class of tests that has been approved by the Federal Drug Administration for the diagnosis of LTBI. The QFT-G test uses an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the concentration of interferon-γ

Histone demethylase released by activated T-lymphocytes after stimulation by antigens that are specific to the M. tuberculosis complex, are widely absent in nontuberculous mycobacteria, and more importantly, are not expressed in BCG [6]. Thus, IGRAs, such as QFT-G, might be particularly useful to test for LTBI in persons who have been vaccinated with BCG [7]. The higher specificity of QFT-G and other IGRAs compared with the TST can be used to eliminate the unnecessary treatment of persons with false-positive TSTs. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the percentage of QFT-G positivity in persons with a history of BCG vaccination who had a positive TST result and (2) to identify patient characteristics that might predict a positive QFT test result. Patients with a positive TST result were referred by local providers to the pulmonary clinic that serves as a referral center for the greater Hartford metropolitan area for medical evaluations to exclude TB disease. Patients aged ≥18 years with a documented positive TST result (≥10 mm induration or ≥5 mm with a chest radiograph consistent with pulmonary TB) who presented to the clinic from June 2008 to December 2009 were included in this study.

2003, Papatheodorou et al 2006, Zhou et al 2007) The original

2003, Papatheodorou et al. 2006, Zhou et al. 2007). The original data suggested that DP, NO3-N, T and PO4-P were almost normally distributed, whereas the other parameters were positively skewed, with kurtosis coefficients significantly greater than three (95% confidence). After log-transformation

of these other parameters ( Kowalkowski et al. 2006, Zhou et al. 2007), all skewness and kurtosis values (except Chl a) were sharply reduced, ranging Bleomycin ic50 from –0.7742 to 0.5822 and from –0.7641 to 0.5840, which were less than the critical values. For CA and PCA, all parameters were also z-scale standardized to minimize the effects of differences in measurement units and variance and to render the data dimensionless ( Wu & Wang 2007, Zhou et al. 2007). CA produced a dendrogram with two groups at (Dlink/Dmax) × 100 < 300 (Figure 3). Group A consisted of stations 5, 7, 8, 13–17, 20–28, which is called the low nutrient group, and group B contained stations 1–4, 6, 9–12, 18, 19 and 29–32, called the high nutrient

group. The classifications varied significantly, because the stations in these groups had similar features (low or high nutrient concentration), although these are caused by different natural backgrounds. The stations of the low nutrient group were far away from the mainland or the upwelling areas, whereas the stations of the high nutrient group came from the Pearl River Estuary (stations 1, 2, 3, 32, 31), or the Everolimus mouse upwelling regions (stations 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12 from the north-east of the PIS; 29, 30 from the upwelling region in the

west of the PIS). Station 23 from the perennial cold cyclonic eddy region should be in the high nutrient group, but is in fact in the low nutrient group, since the upwelling driven by the perennial cold cyclonic eddy is not powerful enough at the surface (Wu 1991, Liao et al. 2006). Bartlett’s PI-1840 sphericity test was performed on the parameter correlation matrix to examine the validity of the PCA (Wu & Wang 2007, Zhou et al. 2007). The significant level of Bartlett’s sphericity test is 0 (p < 0.05), indicating that PCA may be useful in providing significant reductions in dimensionality. PCA was conducted on standardized data sets of Data1 (z-scale standardized with mean and variance of zero and one, respectively) to analyse the source identification of nutrients (Mendiguchía et al. 2007, Zhou et al. 2007) and find the best indicator for upwelling formation. The linear correlation coefficients between the variables are shown in Table 1. As we expected, dissolved oxygen was strongly positively correlated with Chl a, which is a natural process because marine phytoplankton are the major oxygen producers here ( Xu & Zhu 1999, Wu & Wang 2007). Table 2 summarizes the PCA results comprising the loadings and eigenvalues. According to the eigenvalue-one criterion, the first five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 were considered essential. They explained 78.65% of the total variance. According to Table 2, the main contribution to PC1, explaining 27.

However, when the 2 arms were analyzed separately, significant in

However, when the 2 arms were analyzed separately, significant increases were noted in each arm for lean body mass (by about 2.5 kg, ABT-263 molecular weight both P < .04) and 6-minute walk distance (approximately 50 m, both P < .04). No change was noted for physical activity or grip strength. Resting energy expenditure decreased significantly in both groups. Body weight was increased in the group that received megestrol acetate only (from 54.7 ± 10.8 to 57.2 ± 11.8 kg, P = .05). L-carnitine on its own also has been successfully used in 72 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer as part of a prospective, multicenter,

placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blinded trial.31 Patients received oral L-carnitine at a dose of 4 g or placebo. At study entry, patients reported a mean weight loss of 12.0 ± 2.5 kg. During 12 weeks of treatment, body mass index increased by 3.4% ± 1.4% under L-carnitine and decreased by 1.5% ± 1.4% in controls (P < .05). Likewise, body fat and body BIBW2992 cell line cell mass increased in the L-carnitine group only. The appetite stimulant megestrol acetate also has been successfully used in children. Cuvelier et al32 randomized, in a double-blind fashion, 26 children to receive an oral suspension of megestrol acetate

(7.5 mg/kg/d) or placebo for 90 days. Patients enrolled into the study were younger than 18 years of age and presented with weight loss of 5% or more secondary to cancer and/or cancer treatment. Children on megestrol acetate experienced an average weight gain of +19.7% compared with a mean weight loss of 1.2% in the placebo group (P = .003). 32 All patients in the megestrol acetate group developed at least one undetectable early morning serum cortisol level during the study; this occurred only in 1 patient on placebo. Severe adrenal suppression was reported in 2 patients on megestrol acetate. Other adverse effects were not different between this and the placebo group. 32 Melatonin has been

shown to improve appetite in animal experiments.33 Del Fabbro et al34 performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. Unfortunately, the trial was stopped early for futility. This result came as a surprise, because the dosage used in this trial, oral melatonin 20 mg at night, was similar to that used in previous trials and is much higher than that used for conditions such as jet lag (typically 0.5–5.0 mg). A total of 73 patients were enrolled, but it was stopped after 48 subjects had finished the study, because an interim analysis showed that the intervention was unlikely to be of significant benefit. In fact, none of the assessed end points improved: the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT-F), or the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) scores. Also, there was no change in body weight to suggest any benefit of melatonin over placebo (all P > .15).

85 μg C L− 1) Microphytoplankton cell abundances ranged from 7 2

85 μg C L− 1). Microphytoplankton cell abundances ranged from 7.25 × 103 to 2.12 × 106 cells L− 1 and the carbon biomass from 1.25 to 121.98 μg C L− 1, with the minima recorded in the autumn and the maxima in the spring. The micro size-class was almost exclusively dominated by diatoms in terms of abundance ( Figure 5); as regards biomass, however, the situation was somewhat different. In the spring, at station BK1, the microchlorophytes (Pediastrum sp.) made a substantial contribution to the microphytoplankton carbon biomass HCS assay

81% (99.36 μg C L− 1). Among the diatoms, Skeletonema marinoi ( Figures 8b,c,d) was the main component of the winter/spring bloom, contributing up to 96% of the microphytoplankton abundance and achieving high cell concentrations above the halocline

Selleck Forskolin of 2.86 × 106 and 1.10 × 106 cells L− 1 in spring and winter respectively. In the autumn, when cell numbers were low, S. marinoi was among the codominant species, constituting 15% of the microphytoplankton abundance (1.97 × 104 cells L− 1). In the summer, Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima ( Figures 8a,e) with maxima of 1.20 × 105 cells L− 1 and Thalassionema frauenfeldii with maxima of 1.12 × 105 cells L− 1 were the co-dominant diatom species, respectively contributing up to 45% and 30% of the total microphytoplankton cell concentration. Dinoflagellates were significant in the phytoplankton assemblages in the summer as well, especially at station BK1, where they reached values of 84.57 μg C L− 1 or 80% of the microphytoplankton carbon, mostly due to the development of the species Prorocentrum micans. The application of PCA to the environmental data revealed that the first three principal components (PCs) had eigenvalues > 0.05 and accounted for 97.6% of the total variance (Table 3), representing a good description the environmental structure. The first principal

component (PC1) of Rebamipide accounted for 84.8% of the total variance, with nutrients representing the highest positive loads, whereas salinity loaded negatively. The second principal component (PC2) expressed 8.7% of the variation and was also related to nutrients. The samples from the layer above the halocline in the summer were related primarily to temperature. This was interpreted by the third principal component (PC3), which explained 4.1% of the variance. Abundances of dominant phytoplankton taxa were superimposed on the PCA scatter plot and their distributions indicated their preference for particular environmental conditions (Figure 6 and Figure 7). The correlation coefficients presented in Table 4 confirmed the statistically significant relationships between species abundances and physico-chemical parameters. Both phytoplankton abundances and carbon biomasses were generally higher in Boka Kotorska Bay than in the outer coastal (Socal et al.

The current MMO draft marine plan for selected English waters in

The current MMO draft marine plan for selected English waters in the North

Sea [111] designates ‘areas of potential’ for CO2 storage, in which marine licence applicants: should demonstrate in order of preference: (a) that they will not, wherever possible, prevent carbon dioxide storage An equivalent policy is notably absent from the Consultation Draft of Scotland׳s National Marine Plan, which sets out clear objectives to develop CO2 storage, but does not identify in detail how this objectives is to be reconciled with clear objectives to develop a wide range of other marine activities (e.g. marine renewable energy) [108]. It does however contemplate the preservation of spatial opportunity for CCTS projects by requiring that ‘Consideration should be given to the development of marine utility corridors which will allow [CCTS] to capitalise on current infrastructure

in the North Sea including shared use of spatial corridors and pipelines.’ [108]. The UK׳s approach to planning and regulation of offshore CO2 storage (and its interaction with other marine activities) is illustrative of three key points that may be of particular interest Natural Product Library in vitro to other countries and jurisdictions: First, how a diverse array of coordination measures can be used to promote coherence within a complex and Oxymatrine sectorally fragmented regulatory framework. As highlighted in Section 4 above, coherence can be promoted hierarchically (e.g. legal requirements to act consistently with certain policy instruments); or non-hierarchically (e.g. operational coordination arrangements; careful scope delineation of sector-specific permitting requirements).

A distinctive feature of the UK׳s approach is the cross-sectoral planning activity undertaken by the Crown Estate Commissioners, acting their capacity as a public but non-governmental owner of a broad portfolio of offshore property interests. As far as the author is aware, the Commissioners׳ cross-sectoral marine management and planning functions, exercised at arms length from government,8 do not have an equivalent in any other country or jurisdiction. Second, coherent cross-sectoral planning and regulation of marine activities can be promoted with limited centralisation of regulatory frameworks and associated government agencies. As noted in Section 4 above, decentralisation may yield beneficial outcomes provided coherence is maintained, including: inclusive decision-making, improved institutional memory, diversification of risk, and systemic resilience. Finally, a coherent planning framework may be necessary but not sufficient to deliver on high-level policy objectives to deploy offshore CO2 storage.