Success and complications were classified

according to th

Success and complications were classified

according to the Heart Rhythm Society consensus statement. Outcomes in octogenarians were compared Cilengitide ic50 to younger patients undergoing extraction during the same period. Results: Four hundred and six cases were performed: 72 procedures in octogenarians (mean age 84, range 8095) and 334 in younger adults (mean age 62, range 2079). Octogenarians had a greater number of comorbidities per case. Infection was the commonest indication for extraction in both groups. One hundred forty-one leads were extracted in octogenarians and 657 in younger patients. Laser assistance was required in 51.4% of octogenarians versus 49.7% of younger patients. Procedural success was achieved in 71/72 (98.6%) octogenarians versus 329/334 (98.5%) younger patients. No procedural mortality occurred in either group. Overall, complications were more frequent in octogenarians with major and minor complications occurring Dibutyryl-cAMP manufacturer in 2.8 and 8.3% of octogenarians versus 0.6 and 3.0% of younger patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions: Procedural success was equally high in octogenarians and younger patients. Percutaneous lead extraction can be performed effectively

and safely in octogenarians and is associated with a higher complication rate but no increased mortality. (PACE 2012;00:19)”
“This is the first report of the simultaneous combined use of trans-sphenoidal and trans-ventricular-endoscopic route for decompression of a giant pituitary adenoma.

A 38 year old man presented to us with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure along with visual and hypothalamic disturbances. The CT scan revealed destruction of the sella by a large (5 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm) well defined enhancing mass in the sella and suprasellar region extending laterally

up to the cavernous sinuses and both carotid arteries and superiorly into the lumen of the 3rd ventricle producing obstructive check details hydrocephalus. On T2WI of the non-contrast MRI scan the mass was iso-intense to grey matter suggesting the possibility of a firm nature of the adenoma. The tumour was first approached by the standard trans-sphenoidal route and as predicted from the pre-operative MRI, the tumour was found to be firm and not amenable to suction. After decompression of the intra-sellar part of the tumour, the intracranial pressure was raised in an attempt to make the remainder of the tumour descend into the sella but without success. The suprasellar part of the tumour was then simultaneously addressed via a trans-ventricular-endoscopic route but the firm tumour did not yield to endoscopic instruments viz. biopsy forceps, angiographic catheter and electrosurgical probes. It was then gently pushed down towards the sella and decompressed piecemeal by using trans-sphenoidal instruments.

67, the sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 72%, respectivel

67, the sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 72%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Vessel invasion had the greatest impact on recurrence

in clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer. Our simple computed tomography image analysis showed good predictive performance for vessel invasion.”
“In the present Fludarabine ic50 study, the crude extract and its four fractions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, water from Pyrola incarnata Fisch. leaves were prepared and their antioxidant activities were investigated by using four antioxidant assays in vitro. The ethyl acetate fraction showed remarkably strong antioxidant activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power and beta-carotene-linoleic acid SHP099 research buy bleaching, which were almost comparable to capacities of the positive controls (VC and BHT). The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation. According to the results, a significant correlation between total

phenolic contents and antioxidant activities were observed. At last the ethyl acetate fraction was analyzed by HPLC. Eight kinds of phenolic compounds were identified by ESI-MSn. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Traditionally, laser supraglottoplasty for the treatment of severe laryngomalacia (SLM) is via rigid endoscopy (RE). Potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser fiber can pass through a flexible endoscopy (FE) and cauterize tissue. This study is designed to evaluate and compare clinical variables between these two techniques in the treatment of SLM in infants.

Methods: A retrospective study includes four-year period of consecutive infants who received laser supraglottoplasty. In the first two years (2006-2007), conventional RE CO(2)-laser with general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation

were used. In the latter two years WZB117 (2008-2009), a novel technique of FE KTP-laser with intravenous sedation, nasopharyngeal oxygen and a noninvasive respiratory support (if indicated), without any artificial airway was used immediately after the diagnostic FE. After laser surgery, infants were followed for three months. Clinical variables were analyzed and compared.

Results: A total of 57 infants (27 in RE group, 30 in FE group) were enrolled. Basic variables were similar between both groups. Clinical improvement was comparable with 88.9% and 93.3% in the RE and FE groups, respectively. There are no significant differences in mean number of laser surgery, major complications, duration of post-laser respiratory support and hospitalization days, body weight percentile between the two groups. However, the durations of waiting time, operation, ET intubation and total hospital days were significantly less in the FE group.

Findings are informative

Findings are informative PXD101 inhibitor for planning outcome data collection in large numbers of patients with acute stroke. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Vimang (R) is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (mango), and is widely used as antioxidant, analgesic and antinflamatory agent. A novel technological scheme for obtaining an aqueous extract of this plant has been developed in Cuba at industrial scale. The process involves the extraction of mango stem bark using water as a solvent. The aim of this study was to establish through a kinetic study the minimum stages of extraction, as well as to determine the extractive power of five solvents, in the extraction

of mangiferin from vegetable material. We conclude that in an operation stage was possible to extract around 2.5 g/L of mangiferin Selleck Selumetinib while in the second extraction step the quantity of mangiferin decreases 5 times

respect to the first stage. The relative order of extraction of the mangiferin taking into account the studied solvents was methanol > water > chloroform > n butanol.”
“Calcium is essential for normal fetal growth and development. During intrauterine life, the fetus is entirely dependent on the mother and a normally functioning placenta for calcium accretion. Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal calcium metabolism and placental dysfunction. The objective of our study was to investigate ionized calcium levels in the umbilical cord arterial blood of women with preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancies. There were 24 women in the preeclampsia group and 25 in the normotensive group. There was no difference in the cord pH and fetal growth

restriction between the two groups. Ionized calcium levels were significantly lower in the preeclampsia group (p < 0.001). Our results emphasize the need for further studies on the calcium Buparlisib cost status of infants born to mothers with preeclampsia.”
“Weight loss failure occurs in 8 % to 40 % of patients after gastric bypass (GBP). The aim of our study was to analyse the predictive factors of weight loss at 1 year so as to select the best candidates for this surgery and reduce the failures. We included 73 patients treated by laparoscopic GBP. We retrospectively analysed the predictive factors of weight loss in kilograms as well as excess weight loss in percentage (EWL%) at 1 year. The population was divided into tertiles so as to compare the sub-group with the highest weight loss with the sub-group with the least satisfactory results. The significantly predictive factors of a better weight loss in kilograms were male, higher initial weight (144 versus 118 kg, p = 0.002), a significant early weight loss and a higher preoperative percentage of fat-free mass (FFM%; p = 0.03). A higher FFM% was also associated with a better EWL% (p = 0.004).

005) that showed an increase in intensity upon irradiation “

005) that showed an increase in intensity upon irradiation.”
“A 100-nm-thick Fe50Pt50 film with high coercivity was fabricated by magnetron sputtering. On introducing

a Cr top/bottom layer, the ordering temperature (T-or) of the film decreased considerably from 500 to 380 degrees C. On introducing both Cr top/bottom layer and a 0.2-nm-thick Cu interlayer, the T-or decreased even further to 340 degrees C. During the annealing process, the number of Cr atoms diffused into the Fe50Pt50 layer increased. This increased the Fe diffusivity, lowering the T-or in the process. The diffusion of the additive and the effects of annealing were verified by selected-area electron diffraction observations and by investigating the temperature dependence of the magnetization. The superlattice structure of the ordered Fe50Pt50 film containing Cr and Cu additives was confirmed by the transmission electronic microscopy. Because of the Cr and Cu additives, the average grain size in the ordered Fe50Pt50 film increased slightly; however, the coercivity of the ordered Fe50Pt50 film is improved considerably.”
“Objectives: To build a critical appraisal of the available literature to evaluate the effectiveness of topical calcineurin inhibitors in

treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), in comparison to topical corticosteroids (TCs) and/or placebo.

Review methods: Design: systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: electronic search of MEDLINE Pubmed along the last 10 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library purchase years (1997-2006). Study selection: randomized control trials of TCIs reporting efficacy outcomes, in comparison to TCs or vehicle (placebo) or both. Data synthesis: of 210 articles, 19 studies were included, 10 for tacrolimus and 9 for pimecrolimus. involving 7378 patients

of whom 2771 applied tacrolimus, 1783 applied pimecrolimus, and 2824 were controls. Both drugs were significantly more effective than a vehicle. However, two long-term trials comparing demonstrated the value of pimecrolimus in reduction of flares and steroid-sparing effect after 6 months. Compared to TCs, both 0.1% and 0.03% tacrolimus ointments were as effective as moderate potency selleck compound TCs, and more effective than a combined steroid regimen. Tacrolimus was more effective than mild TCs.

Conclusions: TCIs in AD are more effective than placebo. Although less effective than TCs, pimecrolimus has its value in long-term maintenance and as a steroid-sparing agent in AD, whenever used early enough, at first appearance of erythema and/or itching. In treatment of moderate to severe AD, topical tacrolimus is as effective as moderately potent TCs, and more effective than mild preparations. Chronic AD lesions of the face and flexures are the most justified indication for topical calcineurin inhibitors. (C) 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

CONCLUSION: The results indicated that papain was successfully im

CONCLUSION: The results indicated that papain was successfully immobilized on the surface of the activated

carriers. The immobilized papain had not only higher activity recovery, but also better stability, reusability and environmental adaptability. Copyright (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To describe the content and frequency of communication about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during outpatient encounters between oncologists and their patients with advanced cancer.

Methods: We coded for HRQOL talk in a subset of audio-recorded Selleck CBL0137 conversations (each previously found to contain prognostic talk by the oncologist) from the Study of Communication in Oncologist-Patient Encounters Trial, a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003 to 2008 in two large US academic medical centers and one Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Results: Seventy-three encounters involved 70 patients and 37 oncologists. Patients were more likely to be female (53%), White (86%), married (78%), and possessing

some college education (62%). Most oncologists were male (78%) and White (78%). Mean ages were 59 years for patients and 44 years for oncologists. Every encounter included some talk about HRQOL and HRQOL discussions made up, on average, 25% of the visit time. HRQOL segments described symptoms (50%), general HRQOL (27%), and the following concerns: physical (27%), functional (22%), psychological (9%), social (7%), spiritual (1%), and other (28%). Topics included treatment (56%), disease (14%), and testing (3%), and conversations focused on past (44%), buy GSK1210151A present (68%), and future HRQOL (59%).

Conclusions: Selleck BVD-523 HRQOL discussions between oncologists and patients are common, but the emphasis is often on treatment (e.g. side effects) and symptoms (e.g. pain) even in patients with advanced disease. Given the often intense emotional experience of patients with advanced cancer, oncologists may need to pay more attention to psychological, social, and spiritual HRQOL concerns.

Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: The catalytic degradation of aqueous FischerTropsch (FT) effluents to fuel gas over Ru/AC has been investigated. In order to understand the catalytic performance and stability of oxide-supported Ru catalysts, several oxide supports (titania, zirconia, ?-alumina and silica) were selected for study, with a focus on the hydrothermal stability of catalysts. RESULTS: The catalytic efficiency for transforming the oxygenates in aqueous FT effluents to C1C6 alkanes decreased in the order: Ru/ZrO2 similar to Ru/TiO2 > Ru/SiO2 > Ru/Al2O3. The conversion of alcohols was greatly suppressed over Ru/?-Al2O3. The former two catalysts (Ru/ZrO2 and Ru/TiO2) exhibited enhanced efficiency and long-term stability (400 h) relative to Ru/SiO2 and Ru/Al2O3.

Dsol significantly improved 7-day graft survival after 36-h prese

Dsol significantly improved 7-day graft survival after 36-h preservation. After 24-h preservation, Dsol was associated with significantly

faster recovery of ATP content and less activation of calpain and caspase-3 selleck chemicals llc after reperfusion. Dsol diminished graft injury significantly, as revealed by the lower levels of infarction, apoptosis, serum LDH and AST release, and graft fibrosis at 7-day. Dsol significantly inhibited Ca2+ overload during cold preservation. Dsol inhibited myocardial injury and improved graft survival by suppressing Ca2+ overload during the preservation and the activation of Ca2+ -dependent proteases. Dsol is therefore considered a better alternative to UW to ameliorate the outcome of heart transplantation.”
“Background: Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early life may influence adiposity development.

Objective: We examined the extent to which prenatal n-3 (omega-3) and

n-6 (omega-6) PUFA concentrations were associated with childhood adiposity.

Design: In mother-child pairs in the Project Viva cohort, we assessed midpregnancy fatty acid intakes (n = 1120), maternal plasma PUFA concentrations (n = 227), and umbilical cord plasma PUFA concentrations (n = 302). We performed multivariable regression analyses to examine independent associations of n-3 PUFAs, Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA + EPA), n-6 PUFAs, and the ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFAs, with child adiposity at age 3 y measured by the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses Selleckchem ACY-738 (SS + TR) and risk of obesity (body mass index >= 95th percentile for age and sex).

Results: Mean (+/- SD) DHA + EPA intake was 0.15 +/- 0.14 g DHA + EPA/d, maternal plasma concentration was 1.9 +/- 0.6%, and umbilical plasma concentration was 4.6 +/- 1.2%. In children, SS + TR was 16.7 +/- 4.3 mm, and 9.4% of children were obese. In the adjusted analysis, there was an association between each SD increase in DHA + EPA and lower child SS + TR [-0.31 mm (95% CI: -0.58,

-0.04 mm) for maternal diet and -0.91 mm (95% CI: -1.63, -0.20 mm) for cord plasma] and lower odds of obesity [odds ratio (95% CI): 0.68 (0.50, 0.92) for maternal diet and 0.09 (0.02, 0.52) for cord plasma]. Maternal plasma DHA + EPA concentration was not significantly associated with child adiposity. A higher ratio of cord plasma n-6: n-3 PUFAs was associated with higher SS + TR and odds of obesity.

Conclusion: An enhanced maternal-fetal n-3 PUFA status was associated with lower childhood adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:780-8.”
“Background: Globalization and intercontinental migration have not just changed the socioeconomic status of regions, but have also altered disease dynamics across the globe. Hepatolithiasis, although still rare, is becoming increasingly evident in the West because of immigration from the Asia-Pacific region, where the disease prevails in endemic proportions. Such rare but emerging diseases pose a therapeutic challenge to doctors.

However, other side effects, such as akathisia, are repeatedly re

However, other side effects, such as akathisia, are repeatedly reported. Further, none of the studies report longer-term outcomes. In the absence of alternatives, polypharmacy is

a common strategy in clinical practice. Combining aripiprazole with clozapine in clozapine-resistant or clozapine-intolerant patients seems to be worthy of further investigation from the pharmacological and clinical points of view.”
“Besides the well-known systemic immune deficiency, also a regional immune deficiency, labeled as immunocompromised district (ICD), has been documented and focused in the recent years. The objective of the study is to gain more insights into the mechanisms PF-00299804 molecular weight involved in systemic and local immune destabilization. A 35-year-old, homosexual, and drug-addicted HIV+ man presented with a single nodule of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) located on the penis, where a slow to heal herpes zoster had appeared 2 months before. It has been assumed that the unusual

penile location of herpes zoster facilitated the outbreak of KS in the affected dermatome because of a viral damage to sensory nerve fibers of the same dermatome. This damage, by interfering with the immunoregulatory function of neuropeptides released by nerve endings in that area, may have caused a regional alteration of the immune control favoring the local onset of the opportunistic angiogenic tumor (KS). In a few words, an ICD took place in an immunocompromised patient, thus introducing a more vulnerable site in an already vulnerable subject. The present case is the second one in the literature to document an ICD in the

setting of preexisting systemic immune deficiency.”
“Medication GSK461364 order overuse headache (MOH) can be considered a clinical condition at the boundaries between drug addiction and P005091 molecular weight chronic pain disorder. The common 196G > A single-nucleotide polymorphism of BDNF gene, resulting in a valine 66 to methionine (Val66Met), is related with behaviour disorders and substance abuse. With the aim of identifying a worsening factor in MOH, rather than the detection of a specific risk factor for the development of the disease, we investigated whether the presence of a functional BDNF polymorphism might determine clinical differences within a group of 90 MOH patients, particularly in monthly drug consumption, that is the hallmark of disease. Directly comparing MOH patients homozygous for G allele (G/G) with carriers of A allele (non-G/G), we have observed 47 G/G genotypes and 60 non-G/G genotypes. Non-G/G had a higher consumption of monthly drug number (Cohen’s d = 0.76) than G/G patients. At multiple regression analysis, the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism emerged as a significant independent predictor of analgesic drug consumption (Beta = 0.33, Cohen’s f (2) = 0.134). These findings showed an influence of examined BDNF polymorphism in the MOH clinical features, supporting the idea that MOH is a substance abuse disorder.

In addition, idebenone induced an increase in the total RNA of th

In addition, idebenone induced an increase in the total RNA of the pro-apoptosis protein BAX, it also increased the caspase-3 activity in the cell lysates when compared with the untreated control cells or cells exposed to 10 mu M or lower BAY 73-4506 solubility dmso concentrations of idebenone. The detrimental effect of idebenone was attenuated by glutathione, an antioxidant, suggesting that oxidative stress contributed to the idebenone-induced cell death. In conclusion, our results suggest that antioxidant idebenone induced apoptosis when used in high concentrations.”
“This article explores the behavior

of interface thermal conductance of longitudinally connected ( 6,6) nanotubes-connected through CH(2) linkages-using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and wave packet simulations. Here, we study the effect of connected linkers on the interface thermal conductance and thermal energy transmission coefficients for several phonon modes. Our simulation results suggest that interface thermal conductance between nanotubes strongly depends on the number of CH(2) linkers. The more the number Selleck Pexidartinib of CH(2) linkers, the higher the conductance.

Further insights into phonon energy transmission are provided from wave packet simulations. Here, we find that the behavior of transmission for various studied acoustic and optical phonon modes is complex in nature, where the thermal transmission coefficients do not always correlate with number of CH2 linkages. However, when the contributions from all the modes are added together, the overall interface thermal conductance agrees well with NEMD simulations. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3560914]“
“Evidence regarding the role of mercury

and aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains controversial. The aims of our project were to investigate the content of the selected metals in brain tissue samples and the use of a specific mathematical transform to eliminate the disadvantage of a strong positive skew in the original data distribution. AZD1480 in vivo In this study, we used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine mercury and aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus and associative visual cortex of 29 neuropathologically confirmed AD and 27 age-matched controls. The Box-Cox data transformation was used for statistical evaluation. AD brains had higher mean aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus than controls (0.357 vs. 0.090 mu g/g; P = 0.039) after data transformation. Results for mercury were not significant. Original data regarding microelement concentrations are heavily skewed and do not pass the normality test in general. A Box-Cox transformation can eliminate this disadvantage and allow parametric testing.

There is a lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines for both a

There is a lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines for both acute and long-term management of ocular myasthenia. Acute management of myasthenic crisis requires intensive

monitoring of the Navitoclax concentration patient and institution of an efficient and safe treatment such as plasma exchange. Patient education is essential to a comprehensive long-term treatment plan.”
“Background: Plasma metal ion levels are commonly used in the postoperative follow-up evaluation of patients who have had a metal-on-metal hi p,arthroplasty. However, the relationship between these levels and clinical and imaging findings is not well known.

Methods: We evaluated 156 consecutive patients who received a unilateral ASR XL total hip replacement. Patients presented, regardless of symptoms, in response to HM781-36B a voluntary recall of the hip replacement by the manufacturer and were assessed with regard to the presence and type of symptoms and plasma cobalt-chromium levels. In addition, radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed and analyzed.

Results: Eighty patients were asymptomatic, and seventy-six

patients were symptomatic. The median cobalt level was 1.8 ppb, and the median chromium level was 1.0 ppb (at or below measurement threshold). Pseudotumors that could be detected on magnetic resonance imaging were seen in 69% (107) of 156 patients, and radiographic osteolysis was evident in 7% (eleven patients). At a threshold of 5 ppb, no association was detected between abnormal metal ion levels and patient symptoms, prosthetic femoral head size, or acetabular cup inclination. An abnormal cobalt level was significantly associated with the presence of periprosthetic lucency on radiographs and pseudotumor on magnetic resonance imaging (p < 0.05). An abnormal chromium level showed a similar pattern, but the relationships did not reach significance. Both abnormal plasma

cobalt and chromium levels were associated with larger sizes of pseudotumor when present (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In our sample, with a threshold of 5 ppb, abnormal plasma metal ions were associated with larger Cilengitide order sizes of pseudotumors when present, but were not predictive of patient symptoms. Abnormal plasma cobalt levels have a significant association with periprosthetic lucency and presence of pseudotumor. Plasma chromium shows a similar pattern of association with lucency and presence of pseudotumor, although the relationships were not significant. Metal ion analysis should be used in conjunction with clinical and imaging evaluation and not as a sole indirect screening test when evaluating patients following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.”
“Hydrophobically modified polymers were synthesized via esterification reactions between a commercial triblock copolymer composed of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) segments (EO(20)PO(70)EO(20)) and lauric and oleic acids.

This innovative process

This innovative process GSK923295 in vitro showed maximization of alpha-amylase and proteases production when mixtures were used compared to the isolated substrates and can be extended to other enzymes groups for obtaining multi-enzyme complex. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) reduces the complications and cost for both patient and health care systems. Improvement of non-invasive methods has led to development of systems for reproducing continuous, real-time non-invasive ICP signals. So far, non-invasive methods have been tailored for the patients with head trauma. We have used Schmidt’s auto-adaptive method to assess the accuracy of

this method for patients after surgery for supratentorial

brain tumors. Data from forty patients with the diagnosis of brain tumor operated from 2008 to 2010 were used to estimate the accuracy of Schmidt’s method in our patients. We obtained the model parameters from 30 recordings. We determined the ICP wave form for the remaining patients by both invasive and non-invasive techniques. In JQ1 supplier the test group, by invasive method, the mean ICP +/- 2SD was 17.1 +/- 6.6 mmHg and using non-invasive method, the mean ICP +/- 2SD was 16.5 +/- 5.4 mmHg. The calculated error was 4.6 mmHg using root mean square errors. The average Pearson correlation between the estimated and real waveforms was 0.92. We believe that application of this method is acceptable

for post-operative assessment of ICP in brain tumor patients.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus on guinea pig trachealis muscle.

Methods: Guinea pig tracheae were set up in 10 ml organ baths. The effect of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus (0.5 – 8 mg/ml) on the spontaneous tone of the trachea and selleck chemical carbacholprecontracted trachea in the absence and presence of propranolol, glibenclamide and procaine was studied.

Results: The extract (0.5 – 8.0 mg/ml) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the intrinsic tone in tracheal preparations which was completely blocked by propranolol (3 x 10(-7) M), glibenclamide (10(-7) M) and procaine (10(-3) M). The extract (0.5 – 8 mg/ml) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of carbachol (10(-5) M)-precontracted trachea. This effect of the extract was partially blocked by propranolol (3 x 10(-7) M), procaine (10(-3) M) and glibenclamide (10(-7) M) with a progressive increase in the median effective concentration (EC50) values as follows: control, 0.66mg/ml > propranolol, 1.42mg/ml > glibenclamide, 1.54mg/ml > procaine, 2.04 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the extract produces a non-specific smooth muscle relaxant effect mediated via beta-adrenergic receptor mechanism or potassium channels.