“Objectives: To determine the relationship between the num

“Objectives: To determine the relationship between the number of delirium days experienced by intensive care patients and mortality, ventilation time, and intensive care unit stay.\n\nDesign: Prospective cohort analysis.\n\nSetting: Patients from 68 intensive care units in five countries.\n\nPatients: Three hundred fifty-four medical and surgical intensive care patients enrolled in the SEDCOM (Safety and Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine Compared with Midazolam) trial received a sedative study drug and completed at least one delirium assessment.\n\nInterventions:

Sedative drug interruption and/or titration to maintain light sedation with daily arousal and delirium assessments up to 30 days of mechanical ventilation.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was all-cause selleck screening library 30-day mortality. Multivariable analysis using Cox regression incorporating selleck inhibitor delirium duration as a time-dependent variable and adjusting

for eight relevant baseline covariates was conducted to quantify the relationship between number of delirium days and the three main outcomes. Overall, delirium was diagnosed in 228 of 354 patients (64.4%). Mortality was significantly lower in patients without delirium compared to those with delirium (15 of 126 [11.9%] vs. 69 of 228 [30.3%]; p <. 001). Similarly, the median time to extubation and intensive care unit discharge were significantly shorter among nondelirious patients (3.6 vs. 10.7 days [p < .001] and 4 vs. 16 days [p < .001], respectively). In multivariable analysis, the duration of delirium exhibited a nonlinear relationship with mortality (p = .02), with the strongest association observed in the early days of delirium. In comparison to 0 days of delirium, selleckchem an independent dose-response increase in mortality was observed, which increased from 1 day of delirium (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.29; p < .001), 2 days of delirium (hazard ratio, 2.69; confidence interval, 1.58-4.57; p < .001), and >= 3 days of delirium (hazard ratio, 3.37; confidence

interval, 1.92-7.23; p < .001). Similar independent relationships were observed between delirium duration and ventilation time and intensive care length of stay.\n\nConclusions: In ventilated and lightly sedated intensive care unit patients, the duration of delirium was the strongest independent predictor of death, ventilation time, and intensive care unit stay after adjusting for relevant covariates. (Crit Care Med 2010; 38:2311-2318)”
“Study Design. Questionnaire survey.\n\nObjective. To explore spine surgeons’ attitudes toward the involvement of nonphysician clinicians (NPCs) to screen patients with low back or low back-related leg pain referred for surgical assessment.\n\nSummary of Background Data. Although the utilization of physician assistants is common in several healthcare systems, the attitude of spine surgeons toward the independent assessment of patients by NPCs remains uncertain.\n\nMethods.

Here, we show that the majority of early uptake does not occur th

Here, we show that the majority of early uptake does not occur through caveolae. alpha 2 beta 1 integrin, clustered by antibodies or by EV1 binding, is initially internalized from lipid LY3039478 chemical structure rafts into tubulovesicular structures. These vesicles accumulate fluid-phase markers but do not initially colocalize with caveolin-1 or internalized simian virus 40 (SV40). Furthermore, the internalized endosomes

do not contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins or flotillin 1, suggesting that clustered alpha 2 beta 1 integrin does not enter the GPI-anchored protein enriched endosomal compartment or flotillin pathways, respectively. Endosomes mature further into larger multivesicular bodies between 15 min to 2 h and concomitantly recruit caveolin-1 or SV40 inside. Cell entry is regulated by p21-activated kinase (Pak) 1, Rac1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, and actin but not eFT-508 in vitro by dynamin 2 in SAOS-alpha 2 beta 1 cells. An amiloride analog, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropanyl) amiloride, blocks infection, causes integrin accumulation in early tubulovesicular structures, and prevents their structural maturation into multivesicular structures. Our results together suggest that

alpha 2 beta 1 integrin clustering defines its own entry pathway that is Pak1 dependent but clathrin and caveolin independent and that is able to sort cargo to caveosomes.”
“Background: Folate plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Therefore, alterations in the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism may lead to abnormal methylation proliferation, increases of tumor/neoplasia and vein thrombosis/cardiovascular risk. The serine hydroxymethyhransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase (MS), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) regulate key reactions

in the folate selleck and Hcy metabolism. Therefore, we investigated whether the genetic variants of the SHMT, MS, MTRR and CBS gene can affect plasma Hcy levels and are associated with breast cancer risk.\n\nMethods: Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay on samples of 96 cases and 85 controls.\n\nResults: (a) The SHMT 1420 T, MS 2756G, MTRR 66G allele frequency distribution showed significant difference between case and controls (p < 0.01 similar to 0.05). (b) The concentration of plasma Hcy levels of SHMT 1420TT was significantly lower than that of the wild type, while the plasma Hcy levels of MS 2756GG, CBS 699TT/1080TT significantly higher than that of the wild type both in case and controls. The plasma Hcy levels of MTRR 66GG was significantly higher than that of wild type in cases.

Among 2,247 operatively excised stenotic aortic valves in adults

Among 2,247 operatively excised stenotic aortic valves in adults aged >20 years without associated mitral stenosis or mitral valve replacement, 1,608 valves were weighed; 1,241 (77%) weighed <4 g, and 367 (23%) weighed >= 4 g. Of the valves from 1,038 men, 717 (69%) weighed <4 g, and 321 (31%) weighed >= 4 g; of the valves from 570 women, 524 (92%) weighed <4 g, and 46 (8%) weighed >= 4 g. The patients https://www.selleckchem.com/products/epacadostat-incb024360.html with heavier (>= 4 g) valves had higher transvalvular peak gradients (78 +/- 28 vs 55 +/- 27 mm Hg, p < 0.0001), smaller valve areas (0.69 +/- 0.30 vs 0.75 +/- 0.27 cm(2), p < 0.0001), and more often congenitally malformed valves (327 of 367 [89%] vs 638 of 1,241 [51%],

p < 0.0001). In click here patients aged 81 to 90 years, 44 of the 195 valves (23%) were congenitally unicuspid or bicuspid; in those aged 41 to 50 years, 112 of 128 valves (88%) were congenitally malformed. In conclusion, compared

with patients whose stenotic aortic valves weighed <4 g, those with valves weighing >= 4 g were younger, had higher transvalvular peak systolic pressure gradients, had smaller valve areas, and usually (about 90%) had congenitally unicuspid or bicuspid valves. It seems reasonable to avoid percutaneous aortic valve implantation in patients with heavily calcified stenotic aortic valves, most of which are either congenitally unicuspid or bicuspid. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol 2009;104:393-405)”
“Objective To determine the value of echocardiography BKM120 in predicting response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT).\n\nMethods This is a prospective randomised study that recruited patients with (group 1) and without (group 2) echocardiographic evidence of mechanical dyssynchrony. 73 heart failure patients (NYHA III-IV) with a requirement for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, QRS >= 120 ms and LV ejection fraction (EF) < 35% were studied. Group 1 patients received CRT-D

(26 patients). Group 2 patients were randomised to CRT-D (group 2a: 23 patients) or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (group 2b: 21 patients). Main outcome measures were peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)max), NYHA class, and echocardiography at baseline and at 6 months.\n\nResults 62% of group 1 patients achieved >= 1 ml/kg/min increase in VO2max at 6 months versus 50% in group 2a and 21% in group 2b (p=0.04). Group 1 patients showed significant improvements in VO2max (15.8 +/- 2 to 18.0 +/- 4 ml/kg/min, p=0.01), NYHA class (3.1 +/- 0.3 to 1.9 +/- 0.7, p<0.001) and EF (22 +/- 7% to 26 +/- 9%, p=0.02). Group 2a showed significant improvement in NYHA class (3.1 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.7, p<0.001) but no change in EF or VO(2)max. Group 2b showed no change in NYHA class or EF with a decline in VO(2)max (16.4 +/- 4 to 14.1 +/- 4, p=0.03).

Polymers with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 0 to 3 2 m

Polymers with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 0 to 3.2 meqH(+)/g were obtained. The chemical structure of the sPBI was confirmed by NMR, Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR). Although click here the sPBI display a very poor solubility in organic solvents, they are, in the ammonium salt form, soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, NMP, or DMSO. Tough and ductile membranes from solution casting method were prepared. The water uptake and the ionic conductivity were determined

at 30 and 90 degrees C. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1732-1742, 2010″
“Chronic liver diseases are rare in children, but encompass a wide spectrum of disorders that may all be complicated by liver fibrosis and therefore by portal hypertension. check details They may be classified according to the level of portal flow obstruction: prehepatic, intrahepatic or suprahepatic.

Most of them, except presinusoidal diseases, may progress to cirrhosis that carries additional risks of impaired liver function and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging plays an important role in guiding the diagnosis and biopsy and for follow-up during treatment. US, with high-frequency transducers and Doppler, is the first modality of choice, directs the rest of the investigations and guides interventional radiology. MDCT has made great progress and has replaced angiography for diagnostic purposes. MRI is indicated for parenchyma and nodule characterization and for Selleck CX-6258 biliary tract evaluation. To avoid liver biopsy, several elasticity imaging techniques have been developed and have to be evaluated for accuracy and convenience in children. The role of each modality with main imaging findings is described in extrahepatic portal

vein obstruction, hepatoportal sclerosis, congenital hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome.”
“Usability evaluations are necessary to determine the feasibility of nurses’ interactions with computerized clinical decision-support systems. Limitations and challenges of operations that inhibit or facilitate utilization in clinical practice can be identified. This study provided nurses with mobile information terminals, PDAs and tablet PCs, to improve point-of-care access to information. The purpose of this study was to determine usability issues associated with point-of-care technology. Eleven nurses were self-selected. Nurses were videotaped and audiotaped completing four tasks, including setting up the device and three resource search exercises. A research team member completed a usability checklist. Completion times for each task, success rate, and challenges experienced were documented. Four participants completed all tasks, with an average time of 3 minutes 22 seconds.

This study shows that an important factor correlating


This study shows that an important factor correlating

with growth variation is the duration of corneo-scleral tissue in organ culture. Interestingly, donor age was not correlated with limbal explant growth. J. Cell. Physiol. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Multifunctional nanoparticles have been developed to overcome the conventional hurdles associated with the diagnosis and treatment of disease. However, there are often caveats involved with the development and clinical translation of multifunctional nanoparticles largely regarding the notion that additional functionality increases nanoparticle complexity. Here, we discuss two design concepts, a conventional approach, all-in-one’, and introduce the concept of one-for-all’ to suggest that multifunctionality does not necessarily result in Nutlin-3 order multicomponent complex nanoparticles. This review focuses on the design concepts of all-in-one and one-for-all with examples of each approach and a discussion on the implications for clinical translation. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:250265. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1217 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.”
“We report the efficient photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of Cr(VI) using TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) as the photoanode and a large-area Ti mesh as the photocathode. Short-length TNTs (S-TNTs) selleck inhibitor show much greater PEC activity than

either long-length TNTs (L-TNTs) or sol-gel-prepared TiO2 film, due to the fact that the TNT structure is advantageous of trapping light energy over the thin-film structure and the S-TNTs enable the more efficient electron transfer into the substrate than L-TNTs. More importantly, increasing the surface area of the photocathode (Ti mesh) can greatly accelerate the PEC reduction of Cr(VI), presumably due to the increased number of the active reduction sites on the larger-surface Ti mesh. In the PEC reduction of Cr(VI), Cr(V) is identified as a

reaction intermediate using the electroparamagnetic resonance technique, whereby the process for the Cr(VI) evolution is proposed. The S-TNTs have been confirmed to be stable over many repetitive cycles of use, indicating their suitability for wide-scale use. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Sources and sinks of methane, one of the most important greenhouse gases, have attracted intensive attention signaling pathway due to its role in global warming. We show that sea ice in the Arctic Ocean regulates methane level through two mechanisms, shielding of methane emission from the ocean, and consumption of methane. Using a static chamber technique, we estimated that the methane flux from under-ice water was 0.56 mg(CH4) m(-2) d(-1) on average in central Arctic Ocean, relatively higher than that in other oceans, indicating considerable methane storage in this region under sea ice. Average methane flux on under-ice water was higher than that above sea ice, which suggests that sea ice could limit methane emission.

0027) There was no significant difference on follow-up PAPs and

0027). There was no significant difference on follow-up PAPs and biopsies between the two groups

(p = 0.4272). They showed an overall mean of 75% negative, 20% low-grade lesions, and 5% high-grade lesions/carcinoma in situ on follow-up. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates no significant effect of infections on the cytological changes diagnostic of ASCUS. The cytologist should make this diagnosis neglecting any background infections even when predominant. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background\n\nThe National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and the Quality Outcomes Framework require practitioners learn more to use cardiovascular risk scores in assessments for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.\n\nAim\n\nTo explore GPs

FK228 in vitro understanding and use of cardiovascular risk scores.\n\nDesign and setting\n\nQualitative study with purposive maximum variation sampling of 20 GPs working in Oxfordshire, UK.\n\nMethod\n\nThematic analysis of transcriptions of face-to-face interviews with participants undertaken by two individuals (one clinical, one non-clinical).\n\nResults\n\nGPs use cardiovascular risk scores primarily to guide treatment decisions by estimating the risk of a vascular event if the patient remains untreated. They expressed considerable uncertainty about how and whether to take account of existing drug treatment or other types of prior risk modification. They were also unclear about the choice between the older scores, based on

the Framingham study, and newer scores, such as QRISK((R)). There was substantial variation in opinion about whether scores could legitimately be used to illustrate to patients the change in risk as a result of treatment. Panobinostat ic50 The overall impression was of considerable confusion.\n\nConclusion\n\nThe drive to estimate risk more precisely by qualifying guidance and promoting new scores based on partially-treated populations appears to have created unnecessary confusion for little obvious benefit. National guidance needs to be simplified, and, to be fit for purpose, better reflect the ways in which cardiovascular risk scores are currently used in general practice. Patients may be better served by simple advice to use a Framingham score and exercise more clinical judgement, explaining to patients the necessary imprecision of any individual estimate of risk.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether a comprehensive, yoga-based wellness program could positively affect multiple markers of health and wellness in an employee population.\n\nDesign: Self-selected employees who enrolled in a new wellness class were invited to participate in a yoga-based wellness program. Participants met six days per week (Monday through Saturday) at 5:10 AM. Sessions lasted for at least one hour, and the program was six weeks long.

“This report describes a 3-month-old Japanese boy with

“This report describes a 3-month-old Japanese boy with

a diagnosis of isolated unilateral agenesis of the proximal right pulmonary artery with severe pulmonary hypertension. One-stage reconstruction of the right pulmonary artery was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. The hilar right pulmonary artery and the distal main pulmonary artery were joined by anastomosis to an artificial ring graft. The boy’s postoperative course was uneventful, and the pressure in the pulmonary artery was within the normal range. Although mild right pulmonary artery stenosis remained, the authors’ therapeutic strategy may Napabucasin price provide a clinically important option for isolated unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery.”

objective of this study was to determine the optimal feeding level and feeding frequency for the culture of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). A randomized block design in a factorial scheme (3 x 2) with three feeding levels Ulixertinib mouse (30, 60 and 90 g/kg of body weight (BW)/day) and two feeding frequencies (1x and 2x/day) was set up in duplicate, representing 24 experimental units. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Tukey test for comparison between means. After 84 days, results indicated that both factors influenced fish performance. No interaction between these factors was, however, observed. Increased feeding level and feeding frequency resulted in increased feed intake. The feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by feeding level, but not affected by feeding frequency. Final weights were higher when fish were fed twice daily, at levels of 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day. Specific growth rate was higher when fish received 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day, regardless of the feeding frequency. Survival was not affected by any treatment, with mean 11-deoxojervine survival rates higher than 90%. It is recommended that juveniles be fed at a level of 60 g/kg BW/day with a minimum of two meals

per day, to attain optimal survival, growth and feed efficiency.”
“Objectives The conformational state of voltage-gated sodium channels is an important determinant for the efficacy of both local anesthesia and electrical neuromodulation techniques. This study investigated the role of subthreshold preconditioning ramp currents on axonal nerve excitability parameters in the presence of sodium channel blockers in myelinated A and unmyelinated C fibers. Materials and Methods A- and C-fiber compound action potentials were recorded extracellularly in vitro in saphenous nerve from adult rats. Nerve fibers were stimulated with a supramaximal current pulse either alone or after a 300-msec conditioning polarizing ramp current (between -10% and +100% of the original threshold current) in the presence and absence of lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX).

The device evaluation was performed in 33 participants with a mea

The device evaluation was performed in 33 participants with a mean +/- SD age of 54.3 +/- 18.7 Nutlin-3a manufacturer years (range 30-91 years). Their systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 144.0 +/- 23.7 mmHg (range 100-180 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 86.2 +/- 14.4 mmHg (range 60-110 mmHg), and upper arm circumference was 29.4 +/- 2.8 cm (range 24.0-34.0 cm). Blood pressure measurements

were performed in the sitting position. The visomat comfort eco passed all three phases of the European Society of Hypertension protocol for SBP and DBP. Mean blood pressure differences for the visomat comfort eco (device-observer) were -0.5 +/- 5.7 mmHg for SBP and -1.4 +/- 5.3 mmHg for DBP. In conclusion, the present results show that the UEBE visomat comfort eco monitor can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. Blood Press Monit 14:178-180 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“We propose a scheme for generating an N-atom cluster state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). In our scheme, there is no transfer of quantum information between the atoms and the

cavity, i.e., the cavity is always in the vacuum state, so the cavity decay can be suppressed. Also, the generated cluster state is the entanglement of the ground states, so the atomic spontaneous emission can be avoided. Therefore, the cluster state generated in our scheme has a longer lifetime. Furthermore, the requirement on the quality factor of the cavity greatly loosened for the cavity is only PCI-34051 in vitro virtually excited.”
“The success of dynamic NSC 737664 materials properties research at Sandia National Laboratories has led to research into ultralow impedance, compact pulsed power systems capable of multi-MA shaped current pulses with rise times ranging from 220 to 500 ns. The Genesis design consists of two hundred and forty 200 kV, 80 kA modules connected in parallel to a solid dielectric disk transmission line and is capable of producing 280 kbar of magnetic

pressure (> 500 kbar pressure in high Z materials) in a 1.75 nH, 20-mm wide stripline load. Stripline loads operating under these conditions expand during the experiment resulting in a time-varying load that can impact the performance and lifetime of the system. This paper provides analysis of time-varying stripline loads and the impact of these loads on system performance. Further, an approach to reduce dielectric stress levels through active damping is presented as a means to increase system reliability and lifetime.”
“Outcome monitoring is crucial for subsequent adjustments in behavior and is associated with a specific electrophysiological response, the feedback-related negativity (FRN).

At 100% body weight, the location of peak strain in the injured a

At 100% body weight, the location of peak strain in the injured ankle translated anteriorly by 15.5 +/- 7.1 mm and medially by 12.9 +/- 4.3 mm relative to the intact ankle. These changes correspond to the region of clinically observed osteoarthritis. Chronic LAI, therefore, may contribute to the development of tibiotalar cartilage degeneration due to altered cartilage strains. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The one-step cyclocondensation of substituted

isoflavones GSK1838705A with cyanothioacetamide in the presence of sodium hydroxide gave an array of 3-cyano-5,6-diaryl pyridine-2(1H)-thiones in good yields. The procedure involves base-mediated ring opening of the isoflavones and subsequent Knoevenagel condensation between the 1,3-dicarbonyl intermediate generated from the isoflavones and cyanothioacetamide, followed by ring closure and dehydration.”
“Introduction:\n\nAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons and may be associated with impaired cognition. Reliable prognostic factors for ALS patients are still missing.\n\nMethods:\n\nWe prospectively

included 67 patients, 42 women and 25 men, selleck compound with clinically defined ALS. The disease severity was assessed and the patients underwent SPECT, lumbar puncture with determination of tau, hyperphosporylated tau (p-tau) and beta-amyloid and a detailed neuropsychological assessment using a standardized test battery. In patients who died, a detailed neuropathologic evaluation was performed.\n\nResults:\n\nThe mean survival duration was 26.8 months. The delay between the first signs and confirmation of the diagnosis was 12.75 months. Cognitive impairment did not have an impact on the evolution of the disease. There was no correlation

ZD1839 between neuropsychological and SPECT findings. Higher age at onset, more pronounced handicap and elevated beta-amyloid in the CSF were associated with shorter survival times. In brain tissue from nine of the deceased patients with ALS and dementia, all showed signs of comorbidity, six had hallmarks of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and three showed Alzheimer disease pathology. Brain tissues form 11 deceased ALS patients who did not show signs of dementia, had only changes compatible with a diagnosis of motor neuron disease.\n\nConclusion:\n\nIn our prospective study, age, disease severity and CSF beta-amyloid levels taken together were a risk factor suggesting shorter survival times. Dementia is relatively frequent in ALS and may be a consequence of either FTLD or result from co-existing Alzheimer disease.”
“Management practices that maintain carbohydrate reserves in tangerines are necessary in order to ensure good yields.

From 1992 to 2005, there

From 1992 to 2005, there BMS-777607 nmr were 324 vulvar melanomas and 125 vaginal melanomas diagnosed in this group. The annual

age-adjusted incidence rates (per million female population) of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in the different racial/ethnic groups was 0.87 (Blacks), 0.75 (American-Indian), 1.03 (Asians and Pacific Islanders), 1.22 (Hispanics), and 1.90 (non-Hispanic Whites). The overall white/black incidence ratio in vulvar and vaginal melanomas was 3.14 : 1 and 1.02 : 1, respectively; which is much less than that of cutaneous melanoma (13 : 1-17 : 1) and uveal melanoma (18 : 1) and is similar to that of conjunctival melanoma (2.6 : 1) and other mucosal melanomas (2.1 : 1-2.3 : 1). The low racial difference in vulvar and vaginal melanomas (as well as conjunctival and other mucosal melanomas) may be determined by their microenvironment factors (all originate from mucosa or semi-mucosa tissues). The incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas has does not increased in recent decades or toward the south (more sun exposure), indicating that ultraviolet radiation is not a causative factor in these melanomas. The slight decrease of incidence of vulvar melanoma in dark pigmented individuals

may be related to the biochemical protective effects of melanin (as an antioxidant) rather than their photo-screen effects. Melanoma Res 20:153-158 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Duplex PCR analysis was developed to detect a genetically modified (GM) papaya event 55-1 in both fresh and processed A-1210477 papaya fruit. GM papaya event 55-1 is a genetically modified organism (GMO) not currently approved for food in Korea. Using a BI 6727 mw primer set specific to papain, an endogenous papaya gene, we obtained a PCR product only from papaya genomic DNA, thus defining the primer’s specificity.

In another qualitative PCR, we used an event-specific primer pair to amplify and distinguish the target region in GM papaya event 55-1 among fourteen different GM events. Combining the two primer pairs, we developed a duplex PCR and used it to detect GM papaya event 55-1 in eleven fresh and five processed food samples. This new duplex PCR method meets the need to monitor GM papaya event 55-1 in both fresh papaya and processed foods, such as dried or canned papaya.”
“Minimal residual disease (MRD) predicts the outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry (FC) is one of the most sensitive and most applicable methods for MRD diagnostics, but there is still no agreement on the “gold standard” of the method. We tried to optimize flow cytometric MRD detection in T-ALL. Fourteen adults and 11 children with T-ALL and 12 normal bone marrow (BM) donors were enrolled in the study. We found that the most common phenotypic aberrations in T-ALL were TdT and CD99 coexpression on T-cells in BM. Therefore for MRD detection we developed a limited four-color marker panel (TdT/CD7/cCD3/CD19 and CD99/CD7/cCD3/CD2) and a standard analysis strategy.